NUTRITION – NUTRIENT TIMING


1 RESEARCH ARTICLE + 3 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHICS TO ENLARGE


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ISSN NUTRITION POSITION STAND – NUTRIENT TIMING – 2017


GLYCOGEN
· Glycogen stores are maximized by following a high-carbohydrate diet: 8–12 g of carb/kg/day [g/kg/d]
· These stores are depleted most by high volume exercise
· If rapid restoration of glycogen is required (<4 hr recovery time) consider:
(a) carb refeeding (1.2 g/kg/h) with a high (> 70) glycemic index
(b) the addition of caffeine (3–8 mg/kg)
(c) combine carbs (0.8 g/kg/h) with protein (0.2–0.4 g/kg/h)
ENDURANCE & CARBOHYDRATES
· Extended (> 60 min) bouts of high intensity (> 70% VO2max) exercise challenge fuel supply and fluid regulation:
– Take carbs at a rate of ~30–60 g carb/h in a 6–8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (6–12 fluid ounces) every 10–15 min throughout the entire exercise bout, particularly in those exercise bouts that span beyond 70 min
– When carb delivery is inadequate, adding protein may help increase performance, reduce muscle damage, promote normal concentration of glucose in the blood and facilitate glycogen re-synthesis
RESISTANCE EXERCISE & CARBOHYDRATES
· Carbs throughout resistance exercise (e.g., 3–6 sets of 8–12 repetition maximum [RM] using multiple exercises targeting all major muscle groups) has been shown:
– to promote normal concentration of glucose in the blood and higher glycogen stores
– consuming carb solely or in combination with protein during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen stores, reduces muscle damage, and facilitates greater short and long term training adaptations
MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (MPS)
· Meet the total daily intake of protein, preferably with evenly spaced protein feedings (approx every 3 h during the day)
· Essential amino acids of approx 20–40 g maximally stimulates MPS (approx. 10g EAA either in free form or as part of a feeding)
· Pre- and/or post-exercise nutrition (carb + protein or protein alone) may support increases in strength and improvements in body comp; However, the size and timing of a pre-exercise meal may impact the extent to which post-exercise protein feeding is required
· Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 2-h post) of high-quality protein sources stimulates robust increases in MPS
· Approx. 20–40 g protein (0.25–0.40 g/kg body mass/dose) of a high-quality source every 3-4 hrs appears to most favorably affect MPS rates when compared to other dietary patterns and is associated with improved body composition and performance outcomes
PRIOR TO SLEEP
· Casein protein (~ 30–40 g) prior to sleep can increase MPS and metabolic rate throughout the night without influencing lipolysis


 

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