NUTRITION – PROTEIN – TYPE


6 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 14 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE


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WHEY


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WHEY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTING DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING AUGMENTS LEAN BODY MASS – 2013


INTRODUCTION
– Compared to soy, whey PRO is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in more increase in muscle protein synthesis
METHODS
– non-resistance-trained men and women consumed:
(a) carbohydrate (carb; n = 22)
(b) whey protein (whey; n = 19)
(c) soy protein (soy; n = 22)
– All subjects completed a supervised, whole-body periodized resistance training program consisting of 96 workouts (~9 months)
– Body composition was determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months
– Plasma amino acid responses to resistance exercise followed by supplement ingestion were determined at baseline and 9 months
– Daily PRO intake (including supplement) for carb, whey, and soy was 1.1, 1.4, and 1.4 g·kg body mass⁻¹, respectively; 80kg or 176lbs = 88/112/112 g PRO
RESULTS
(1) Lean body mass gains were significantly greater in whey (3.3 ± 1.5 kg) than carb (2.3 ± 1.7 kg) and soy (1.8 ± 1.6 kg)
(2) Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%)
(3) Postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey
(4) Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses
CONCLUSIONS
– Protein quality is an important determinant of lean body mass responses to resistance training


MILK


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WHOLE MILK OR SKIM MILK? → VIDEO – OLIVER WITARD – DECEMBER 2016


EFFECT OF WHOLE MILK COMPARED WITH SKIMMED MILK ON FASTING BLOOD LIPIDS IN HEALTHY ADULTS – 2018


RESULTS
– Whole milk increased HDL cholesterol concentrations significantly compared to skimmed milk
– There were no significant differences between whole milk and skimmed milk in effects on total and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, insulin, and glucose concentrations


MILK STIMULATES NET MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS FOLLOWING RESISTANCE TRAINING – 2006


Elliot TA1Cree MGSanford APWolfe RRTipton KD
METHOD
– Milk was ingested 1 h following a leg resistance exercise routine:

(1) 237 g of fat-free milk (FM)
(2) 237 g of whole milk (WM)
(3) 393 g of fat-free milk isocaloric with the WM (IM)
RESULTS
(1) Net amino acid uptake for threonine was 2.8x greater for WM than for FM
(2) Mean uptake of phenylalanine was 80 and 85% greater for WM and IM, respectively, than for FM, but not statistically different
(3) Threonine uptake relative to ingested was significantly higher for WM (21 +/- 6%) than FM (11 +/- 5%), but not IM (12 +/- 3%)
(4) Mean phenylalanine uptake/ingested also was greatest for WM, but not significantly
– These results suggest that whole milk may have increased utilization of available amino acids for protein synthesis


EFFECT OF WHOLE MILK COMPARED WITH SKIM MILK ON FASTING BLOOD LIPIDS IN HEALTHY ADULTS – 2017


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
– Dietary guidelines have for decades recommended choosing low-fat dairy products due to the high content of saturated fat in dairy
– Saturated fat is known to increase blood concentration of LDL cholesterol
– However, meta-analyses including observational studies show no association between overall dairy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and even point to an inverse association with type 2 diabetes
– The objective was to compare the effects of whole milk (3.5% fat) with skimmed milk (0.1% fat) on fasting serum blood lipids, insulin, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects
SUBJECT/METHODS
– 2 × 3-week dietary intervention in 18 healthy adults
– 0.5 L/d (500 ml per day) of whole milk and skimmed milk as part of their habitual diet
RESULTS
– Whole milk increased HDL cholesterol concentrations significantly compared to skimmed milk
– There were no significant differences between whole milk and skimmed milk in effects on total and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, insulin, and glucose concentrations


EGGS


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NUTRITION TACTICS – JORN TROMMELEN – 2017


Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28978542


DESIGN
– 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1%
– 18 grams of protein in the form of whole eggs or as egg whites after a bout of resistance exercise
– Because the yolk was included in the whole eggs treatment, this treatment had 17 grams of extra fat
– Why did whole eggs stimulate muscle protein synthesis more compared to the egg whites?
– The authors speculated that the additional nonprotein nutrients that the egg yolk provides such as microRNAs, vitamins, minerals, and lipids, could influence pathways for protein transcription and/or translation, thereby affecting protein synthesis

AMINO ACID CONTENT?
– Amino acid composition was nearly identical between the whole eggs and egg whites, and therefore not a likely explanation of the difference
ENERGY CONTENT?
– Energy content: 256 vs 73 kcal for the whole eggs and egg whites
– The addition of large amounts of carbohydrates to protein do not increase muscle protein synthesis rates (3)
FAT?
– The effect of adding fat to protein has inconsistent results (4,5)
INSULIN?
– The consumption of whole eggs led to a greater insulin response. which has been suggested to be an anabolic hormone
– However, insulin does not stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates (6)
CHOLESTEROL?
– Another potential nutrient that the authors did not mention is cholesterol
– Cholesterol has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis rates (7)
– Because we don’t know which nutrient(s) in the yolk were responsible for the increased anabolic response, it’s hard to know if other food items would provide similar effects
– It’s commonly believed that a high cholesterol intake will cause coronary heart diseases and that you should, therefore, remove the egg yolk
– However, the evidence for this relation is actually very weak (8,9)
– Moreover, daily consumption of eggs is not associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or stroke (10)


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