STRENGTH | MUSCLE – GENETIC FINGERPRINT & CELLULAR AGING OF MUSCLE – AGING


7 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 7 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE



STRENGTH TRAINING REVERSES AGING IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE – 2007


Mark A. Tarnopolsky, McMaster University; Simon Melov, Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, California
GROUPS
A: 26 OLDER ADULTS: average age 70
– Relatively active: golf, walk, garden, tennis, cycle 3+ per wk
– Had never participated in formal wt program (RT); not competitive athletes

B: 25 YOUNGER ADULTS: average age 26
– relatively inactive or participated in modest recreational activities; none were athletes
EXERCISE RESISTANCE TRAINING:
2x wk for 26 wks in 14 of older adults; Exercises: 3 sets of 10 reps; 1RM tested every 2 wks; training load adjusted
– Upper: chest press, lat pull-down, seated row, shoulder press, abdominal crunch; 1×10 arm flexion & extension
– Lower: leg press, leg extension, leg flexion, back extension, calf raise
RESULTS:
(1) RT resulted in a reversal of genetic fingerprint back to levels similar to those seen in younger adults
(2) Older adults were 59% weaker; after RT strength improved by about 50%; only 38% weaker than young
(3) Analysis of gene expression profiles showed RT rejuvenates muscle tissue in healthy Sr. citizens
(4) Gene expression profiles involved age-specific mitochondrial function; mitochondria act as “powerhouse” of cells

Melov: “We were very surprised by the results of the study. We expected to see gene expressions that stayed fairly steady in the older adults. The fact that their ‘genetic fingerprints’ so dramatically reversed course gives credence to value of exercise, not only as a means of improving health, but of reversing the aging process itself, which is an additional incentive to exercise as you get older.”


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  AND TELOMERE LENGTH IN MEN AND WOMEN – 2017


Tucker LA1.
AIM

– Determine the extent to which physical activity (PA) accounts for differences in telomere length (LTL)
– Assess the extent to which multiple demographic and lifestyle covariates affect the relationship between PA and LTL
– A total of 5823 adults; PA was indexed using MET-minutes using self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of participation in 62 physical activities
RESULTS
– Telomeres were 15.6 base pairs shorter for each year of chronological age
– PA was inversely related to LTL after adjusting for all the covariates
– Adults with High activity were estimated to have a biologic aging advantage of 9 yrs over Sedentary adults
– The difference in cell aging between those with High and Low activity was 8.8 yrs as was the difference between those with High and Moderate PA (7.1 yrs)
CONCLUSIONS
– Adults who participate in high levels of PA tend to have longer telomeres, accounting for years of reduced cellular aging compared to their more sedentary counterparts



Marek Kasielski,corresponding author1 Makandjou-Ola Eusebio,2 Mirosława Pietruczuk,2 and Dariusz Nowak3
SUBJECTS

28 subjects (seven male and 21 female, age 18–65 years)
RESULTS
– Tested 9 food types (cereal, fruits, vegetables, diary, red meat, poultry, fish, sweets and salty snacks)
– Tested 8 beverages (juices, coffee, tea, mineral water, alcoholic- and sweetened carbonated beverages)
– Only individuals with increased consumption of red meat have had higher T/S ratio


THE EFFECTS OF FITNESS ON THE AGING PROCESS – 2014


Vopat BGKlinge SAMcClure PKFadale PD.
IS IT REALLY AGING THAT CAUSE ACHES & PAINS

– Much age-related deterioration is the result of the effects of sedentary lifestyles and the development of medical conditions rather than of aging itself
MASTERS ATHLETES
– Elite older athletes compared with their cohorts and some younger peers, are models of this paradigm
WEEKEND WARRIORS
– A growing body of basic science and clinical evidence demonstrates how active persons modulate physical decline through training


CELLULAR AGING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE – TELOMERIC & FREE RADICAL EVIDENCE THAT PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS RESPONSIBLE AND NOT AGE – 2014


Venturelli MMorgan GRDonato AJReese VBottura R1Tarperi C2Milanese C2Schena F2Reggiani C3Naro F4Cawthon RM5Richardson RS.
INTRODUCTION

– Telomeres play an essential role in maintaining chromosomal integrity in the face of physiological stressors
STUDY
– Studied Telomere Length (TL) in both the upper and lower limbs of the:
(1) young (2) old-mobile (3) old-immobile
– TL (~15 kb) in arm skeletal muscle is unaffected by age
– TL fell progressively in the legs across the young (~15 kb), the old mobile (~13 kb) and old immobile (~11 kb) subjects
– There was a reciprocal increase in leg muscle free radicals across the groups correlated with TL, with no such relationship in the arm
EXERCISE → REDUCES CELLULAR AGING OF MUSCLE
– Chronological age does not affect cellular aging of skeletal muscle
– Physical inactivity, probably mediated by free radicals, has a profound effect upon this process


TELOMERE LENGTH & LONG-TERM ENDURANCE EXERCISE: AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL AGE? – 2012


Ida Beate Ø. Javaid Nauman et al
BACKGROUND
– Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age
– They are associated with the physical ageing process
METHODS
– 20 men; 10 young (22–27 years) and 10 older (66–77 years)
– 5 out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity (non-athletes)
– The older athletes were selected from the 58-km long Norwegian “Birkebeiner” cross country ski race
– Young athlete group (20–30 yrs) was selected on the basis of participation in “Birkebeiner” ski race together with other track running competitions
– Age matched non-athlete control groups were selected if they had never participated or competed at higher levels in any sports, but were physically active
RESULTS
1. Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels
2. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes
3. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO2max and T/S ratio
4. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak


THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR STRENGTH TRAINING ON TELOMERE LENGTH IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE – 2008


Kadi F1Ponsot EPiehl-Aulin KMackey AKjaer MOskarsson EHolm L
AIM

– Compare telomere length of:
(A) power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 5 to 11 yrs
(B) healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training
RESULTS
1. There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL
2. On the contrary, the minimum TRF lengths in PL tended to be higher than in C
3.  In PL, the minimum TRF length was inversely correlated to the individual records in squat and deadlift
CONCLUSION
– Long-term training is not associated with an abnormal shortening of skeletal muscle telomere length
– Although the minimum telomere length in PL remains within normal physiological ranges, a heavier load put on the muscles means a shorter minimum TRF length in skeletal muscle


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