NUTRITION – PROTEIN – OPTIMAL PROTEIN INTAKE – AGING


5 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 3 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE



NUTRIENT-RICH HIGH QUALITY PROTEIN-CONTAINING DAIRY FOODS IN COMBINATION WITH EXERCISE IN AGING PERSONS TO MITIGATE SARCOPENIA – 2019


Stuart M Phillips, Wendy Martinson
– Mitigation of sarcopenia can be achieved by higher quality protein in sufficient quantities
– Higher levels of physical activity to support cardiovascular fitness and musculoskeletal function work additively with protein in reducing sarcopenia
– A proposed per-meal target for protein intakes is set at approximately 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal for older persons
– Even patterns of protein intake (ex: 4 meals) are associated with increased muscle mass and improved muscle function

Ex: 80 kg or 176 lb person; 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal = 32-48 g protein per meal x 4 meals = 128-192 g per day
Ex: 60 kg or 132 lb person; 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal = 24-36 g protein per meal x 4 meals = 96-144 g per day


PROTEIN IMPROVES MUSCLE MASS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS – 2018


Yongsoon Park Jeong-Eun Choi Hwan-Sik Hwang
DESIGN
– 12-wks; subjects aged 70–85 yrs
CONCLUSIONS
– protein intake of 1.5 g · kg–1 · d–1 has the most beneficial effects in regard to preventing sarcopenia and frailty compared with protein intakes of 0.8 and 1.2 g · kg–1 · d–1 in prefrail or frail elderly subjects at risk of malnutrition


THE EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON RESISTANCE TRAINING INDUCED GAINS IN MUSCLE MASS AND STRENGTH IN HEALTHY ADULTS – 2018


Robert W Morton1Kevin T Murphy1Sean R McKellar1Brad J Schoenfeld2Menno Henselmans3Eric Helms4Alan A Aragon5Michaela C Devries6Laura Banfield7James W Krieger8Stuart M Phillips1
RESULTS
– Data from 49 studies with 1863 participants showed that dietary protein supplementation significantly increased changes in:
1. strength—one-repetition-maximum
2. FFM and muscle size—muscle fibre cross-sectional area and mid-femur CSA during periods of prolonged RET
– The impact of protein supplementation on gains in FFM was reduced with increasing age and was more effective in resistance-trained individuals
– Protein supplementation beyond total protein intakes of 1.62 g/kg/day resulted in no further RET-induced gains in FFM
SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS
– Dietary protein supplementation significantly enhanced changes in muscle strength and size during prolonged RET in healthy adults
– Increasing age reduces and training experience increases the efficacy of protein supplementation during RET
– With protein supplementation, protein intakes at amounts greater than ~1.6 g/kg/day do not further contribute RET-induced gains in FFM


THE EFFECTS OF PROTEIN ON APPENDICULAR LEAN MASS AND MUSCLE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY MEN – 2017


Mitchell CJ1Milan AM1Mitchell SM1Zeng N1Ramzan F1Sharma P1Knowles SO2Roy NC2,3Sjödin A4Wagner KH5Cameron-Smith D6,7,3.
BACKGROUND

– Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein in the adult population is promoted as 0.8 g·kg·d
– Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass
DESIGN
– 29 men aged >70 y were provided with a complete diet containing either:
(a) 0.8 (RDA)
(b) or 1.6 (2RDA) g protein·kg· d, aimed to balance energy needs

RESULTS
– In comparison with RDA, whole-body lean mass increased in 2RDA
– This difference was mostly accounted for by an increase in trunk lean mass found in 2RDA
– Appendicular lean mass also decreased in RDA compared with 2RDA, driven by a reduction in RDA


MUSCLE PROTEIN METABOLISM IN THE ELDERLY – COUNTERACT ANABOLIC RESISTANCE – 2011


Leigh Breen, Stuart M Phillips – Nutrition & Metabolism
– Basal rates of MPS and breakdown are unchanged with advancing healthy age
– It appears muscles of the elderly are resistant to normally robust anabolic stimuli such as amino acids and resistance exercise
– Aging muscle is less sensitive to lower doses of amino acids than the young
– Aging may require higher quantities of protein to acutely stimulate equivalent MPS above rest and accrue muscle proteins


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