NUTRITION – PROTEIN – OPTIMAL PROTEIN INTAKE – AGING


9 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 2 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE



NUTRIENT-RICH HIGH QUALITY PROTEIN-CONTAINING DAIRY FOODS IN COMBINATION WITH EXERCISE IN AGING PERSONS TO MITIGATE SARCOPENIA – 2018


– Mitigation of sarcopenia can be achieved by higher quality protein in sufficient quantities
– Higher levels of physical activity to support cardiovascular fitness and musculoskeletal function work additively with protein in reduce sarcopenia
– A proposed per-meal target for protein intakes is set at approximately 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal for older persons
– Habitual patterns of dietary protein intake tend to emphasize a skewed protein distribution, which would not maximize muscle anabolism
– Even patterns of protein intake (ex: 4 meals) are associated with increased muscle mass and improved muscle function

Ex: 80 kg or 176 lb person; 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal = 32-48 g protein per meal x 4 meals = 128-192 g per day
Ex: 60 kg or 132 lb person; 0.4–0.6 g protein/kg bodyweight/meal = 24-36 g protein per meal x 4 meals = 96-144 g per day


PROTEIN IMPROVES MUSCLE MASS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS – 2018


Yongsoon Park Jeong-Eun Choi Hwan-Sik Hwang
DESIGN
– 12-wks; subjects aged 70–85 yrs
CONCLUSIONS
– protein intake of 1.5 g · kg–1 · d–1 has the most beneficial effects in regard to preventing sarcopenia and frailty compared with protein intakes of 0.8 and 1.2 g · kg–1 · d–1 in prefrail or frail elderly subjects at risk of malnutrition


THE EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON RESISTANCE TRAINING INDUCED GAINS IN MUSCLE MASS AND STRENGTH IN HEALTHY ADULTS – 2018


Robert W Morton1Kevin T Murphy1Sean R McKellar1Brad J Schoenfeld2Menno Henselmans3Eric Helms4Alan A Aragon5Michaela C Devries6Laura Banfield7James W Krieger8Stuart M Phillips1
RESULTS
– Data from 49 studies with 1863 participants showed that dietary protein supplementation significantly increased changes in:
1. strength—one-repetition-maximum
2. FFM and muscle size—muscle fibre cross-sectional area and mid-femur CSA during periods of prolonged RET
– The impact of protein supplementation on gains in FFM was reduced with increasing age and was more effective in resistance-trained individuals
– Protein supplementation beyond total protein intakes of 1.62 g/kg/day resulted in no further RET-induced gains in FFM
SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS
– Dietary protein supplementation significantly enhanced changes in muscle strength and size during prolonged RET in healthy adults
– Increasing age reduces and training experience increases the efficacy of protein supplementation during RET
– With protein supplementation, protein intakes at amounts greater than ~1.6 g/kg/day do not further contribute RET-induced gains in FFM


THE EFFECTS OF PROTEIN ON APPENDICULAR LEAN MASS AND MUSCLE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY MEN – 2017


Mitchell CJ1Milan AM1Mitchell SM1Zeng N1Ramzan F1Sharma P1Knowles SO2Roy NC2,3Sjödin A4Wagner KH5Cameron-Smith D6,7,3.
BACKGROUND

– Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein in the adult population is promoted as 0.8 g·kg·d
– Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass
DESIGN
– 29 men aged >70 y were provided with a complete diet containing either:
(a) 0.8 (RDA)
(b) or 1.6 (2RDA) g protein·kg· d, aimed to balance energy needs

RESULTS
– In comparison with RDA, whole-body lean mass increased in 2RDA
– This difference was mostly accounted for by an increase in trunk lean mass found in 2RDA
– Appendicular lean mass also decreased in RDA compared with 2RDA, driven by a reduction in RDA


PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION AT BF AND LUNCH IN OLDER ADULTS – 2016


Norton C1Toomey C1McCormack WG1Francis P1Saunders J2Kerin E3Jakeman P4.
OBJECTIVE
:
– Determine effect of PRO at BF and lunch for 24 wks on whole-body LTM (lean tissue mass) in adults aged 50–70y
METHODS:
– 60 healthy older men and women (aged 61 ± 5 y)
– Took 0.165 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO)
RESULTS:
– Intake in the PRO group increased from 0.23 to 0.40 g/kg for breakfast and from 0.31 to 0.47 g/kg for the midday meal
CONCLUSIONS
– Protein supplementation resulted in a +0.6 kg difference in LTM compared with isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin


THE LINK BETWEEN PROTEIN & SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTION AND HEALTH IN OLDER ADULTS – 2015


Jamie I. Baum 1,,* and Robert R. Wolfe 2,
– Increasing protein may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis
– Protein intake higher than the current dietary recommendations (0.8 g/kg/day) is beneficial for most older adults
– Protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults


PROTEIN DISTRIBUTION INFLUENCES 24 HOUR MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN ADULTS – 2014


Madonna M. Mamerow,4 Joni A. Mettler,4 Kirk L. English,4 Shanon L. Casperson,6 Emily Arentson-Lantz,4 Melinda Sheffield-Moore,6 Donald K. Layman,7 and Douglas Paddon-Jones4,5,*
METHODS:
– 8 healthy adults (5 male; 3 female) aged 27-55 yrs
(1) Examined effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women
(2) 7-d crossover feeding design with a 30-d washout period
(3) Measured changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner
– Evenly: EVEN; 31.5 ± 1.3, 29.9 ± 1.6, and 32.7 ± 1.6 g protein, respectively
– Skewed: SKEW; 10.7 ± 0.8, 16.0 ± 0.5, and 63.4 ± 3.7 g protein, respectively
RESULTS
(1) 24-h mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 25% higher in EVEN
(2) This pattern was maintained after 7 d of habituation to each diet
CONCLUSION:
– A moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein


PROTEIN INTAKE & EXERCISE FOR OPTIMAL MUSCLE FUNCTION WITH AGING – 2014


Deutz NE1Bauer JM2Barazzoni R3Biolo G3Boirie Y4Bosy-Westphal A5Cederholm T6Cruz-Jentoft A7Krznariç Z8Nair KS9Singer P10Teta D11Tipton K12Calder PC13.
RECOMMENDATIONS
:
– Based on evidence presented and discussed:
(1) For healthy older people, diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day
(2) For older people malnourished or at risk of malnutrition from acute or chronic illness, 1.2-1.5 g pro/kg body wt/day, with higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury

EX: 176lbs or 80kg = 96 to 120g Protein per day


MUSCLE PROTEIN METABOLISM IN THE ELDERLY – COUNTERACT ANABOLIC RESISTANCE – 2011


Leigh Breen, Stuart M Phillips – Nutrition & Metabolism
– Basal rates of MPS and breakdown are unchanged with advancing healthy age
– It appears muscles of the elderly are resistant to normally robust anabolic stimuli such as amino acids and resistance exercise
– Aging muscle is less sensitive to lower doses of amino acids than the young
– Aging may require higher quantities of protein to acutely stimulate equivalent MPS above rest and accrue muscle proteins


Comments are closed.