NUTRITION – PROTEIN – COMBINE WITH EXERCISE – AGING


9 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 1 GRAPHIC – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE


+


PROTEIN AND RESISTANCE TRAINING IN OLDER MEN – 2019


Andrew M Holwerda Kevin J M Paulussen Maarten Overkamp Joy P B GoessensIrene Fleur Kramer Will K W H Wodzig Lex B Verdijk Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND
– Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass is at least partly attributed to anabolic resistance to food intake
– Resistance exercise sensitizes skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of amino acids
METHODS
– 48 healthy older men; 66 ± 1 yrs
– 0, 15, 30, or 45 g milk protein concentrate after a single bout of resistance exercise
– 4 sets x 10 repetitions of leg press and leg extension
– 2 sets x 10 repetitions of lat pulldown and chest press
– performed at 75–80% 1-repetition maximum
CONCLUSIONS
– Dietary protein ingested during recovery from resistance exercise is rapidly digested and absorbed
– Ingestion of ≥30 g protein increases postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older men


THE EFFECTS OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MACRO AND MICRO CIRCULATORY RESPONSE – 2015


Phillips, B. E., Atherton, P. J., Williams, J. P. et al;
METHOD
(a) 10 untrained men (72.3 ± 1.4 yrs)
(b) 10 men who had undertaken 20 wks of fully supervised, whole-body resistance exercise training (RET) (72.8 ± 1.4 yrs)
KEY POINTS
1. Increases in limb blood flow in response to nutrition are reduced in older age
2. Muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) in response to nutrition is also reduced with advancing age and this may contribute to age-related ‘anabolic resistance’
3. Resistance exercise training (RET) can rejuvenate limb blood flow responses to nutrition in older individuals
4. 20 weeks of RET restores muscle MBF in older individuals


SKELETAL MUSCLE DISUSE ATROPHY IS NOT REDUCED BY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION IN HEALTHY OLDER MEN – 2014


Dirks ML,  van Loon LJ et al
PURPOSE
– It has been suggested that increasing protein content of the diet may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce muscle disuse atrophy
– We hypothesized that protein supplementation 2x daily would preserve muscle mass during a short period of limb immobilization
METHODS
– 23 healthy older (69 ± 1 y) men were subjected to 5 days of one-legged knee immobilization by means of a full-leg cast:
1. with PRO group; n = 11; 20.7 g of protein, 9.3 g of carbohydrate, and 3.0 g of fat twice daily
2. or without CON group; n = 12
CONCLUSION
– protein supplementation (∼20 g twice daily) does not attenuate muscle loss during short-term muscle disuse in healthy older men

Comment: Continue to resistance train the rest of your body during the rehab process – Rob


SKELETAL MUSCLE DISUSE ATROPHY IS NOT REDUCED BY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION IN HEALTHY OLDER MEN – 2014


Dirks ML1, Wall BT1, Nilwik R1, Weerts DH2, Verdijk LB1, van Loon LJ
(1) Short successive periods of muscle disuse, due to injury or illness, can contribute significantly to loss of muscle mass with aging
(2) It has been suggested increasing protein content may be an effective dietary strategy to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy
(3) Protein supplementation (∼20g 2x daily) does not reduce muscle loss during short-term muscle disuse in healthy older men

Comment: Continue to resistance train the rest of your body during the rehab process – Rob


PROTEIN ENRICHED DIET WITH THE USE OF LEAN RED MEAT COMBINED WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING ENHANCES LEAN TISSUE MASS AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELDERLY WOMEN


Daly RM et al.
DESIGN:
– A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g⋅ kg⋅ d achieved through lean red meat
– 4 months, 100 women aged 60–90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages received:

(1) PRT: lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk (RT+Meat) group; n = 53
(2) Control PRT: 1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47
– All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d
RESULTS
(1) The mean protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study
(2) The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM, leg LTM and muscle strength
(3) The RT+Meat group experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I
(3) The RT+Meat group 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) after 4 mo

(4) There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure


INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EXERCISE AND NUTRITION TO PREVENT MUSCLE WASTE DURING AGING


Leigh Breen, Stuart M Phillips
SARCOPENIA (AGE RELATED MUSCLE LOSS) & DYNAPENIA (AGE RELATED STRENGTH LOSS):
(1) May be the result, or combination, of alterations in lifestyle or inflammatory and endocrine profiles
(2) Function ability is limited and mortality risk is elevated
MUSCLE ATROPHY:
(1) Prolonged periods of net negative muscle protein balance
(2) Brought about by imbalance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB)
RESISTANCE TRAINING & PROTEIN INTAKE:
(1) Muscle Protein Synthesis in older muscles display a blunted response to anabolic stimuli
(2) Resistance Training and Protein both act as a strong stimulus for MPS and, when combined, can induce a net +ve protein balance and muscle hypertrophy
(3) Dose, absorption kinetics, leucine content, but less-so timing of ingestion, are important determinants of MPS
(4) Resistance exercise-induced MPS and hypertrophy appear to be dependent on exercise volume (to achieve maximal muscle fibre recruitment), as opposed to absolute load lifted


ALTERATIONS MUSCLE PROTEIN METABOLISM WITH AGING: PROTEIN AND EXERCISE AS A COUNTERMEASURES TO OFFSET SARCOPENIA – 2013


Tyler A. Churchward-Venne1, Leigh Breen2 and Stuart M. Phillips
(1) Aging is associated with a reduction in skeletal muscle mass—Sarcopenia
(2) Aging has a reduced sensitivity of skeletal muscle to normally potent anabolic effects of protein feeding and resistance exercise, and to the anticatabolic effects of insulin, the combination of which has been termed “anabolic resistance.”
(3) However, this reduced sensitivity of skeletal muscle to anabolic stimuli may be overcome by nutrition and/or exercise stimulus
(4) Daily physical activity appears to be a primary determinant of anabolic resistance as we recently showed 14 days of reduced ambulatory activity was sufficient to induce anabolic resistance in the elderly by attenuating (reducing) postprandial (after eating) increase in muscle protein synthesis (MPS)


RESISTANCE EXERCISE ENHANCE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS WITH GRADE INTAKES OF WHEY IN OLDER MEN – 2012


Yang Y1, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Josse AR, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM.
BACKGROUND/AIM:
– Feeding stimulates robust increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS)
– However, ageing may alter the anabolic response to protein ingestion and the subsequent aminoacidaemia
– AIM: determine dose-response of MPS with ingestion of isolated whey protein, with and without prior resistance exercise
DESIGN
– 37 men (age 71 (sd 4) yrs)
– Completed unilateral leg-based resistance exercise before 0, 10, 20 or 40 g whey protein isolate (W0-W40)

RESULTS
(1) Whole-body leucine oxidation increased in a stepwise, dose-dependent manner
(2) MPS increased above basal, fasting values by approx. 65 and 90 % for W20 and W40, respectively but not with lower doses of whey
(3) While resistance exercise was generally effective at stimulating MPS, W20 and W40 ingestion post-exercise increased MPS above W0 and W10 exercised values and W40 was greater than W20
CONCLUSIONS
(1) At rest, optimal whey protein dose for non-frail older adults to increase myofibrillar MPS above fasting rates, was 20g
(2) Resistance exercise increases MPS in the elderly at all protein doses, but to a greater extent with 40 g of whey ingestion
(3) In younger adults, post-exercise rates of MPS are saturated with 20 g of protein; older adults respond to higher protein doses


PROTEIN INCREASES MUSCLE MASS GAIN DURING PROLONGED RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN FRAIL ELDERLY PEOPLE – 2012


Tieland M1, Dirks ML, van der Zwaluw N, Verdijk LB, van de Rest O, de Groot LC, van Loon LJ
DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS
– 62 frail elderly subjects (78 ± 1 yr) participated in a progressive resistance exercise program
– 2x/wk for 24 wks
– they were supplemented 2x daily with either protein (2 x 15 g) or were given a placebo

RESULTS
(1) Lean body mass increased from 47.2 kg to 48.5 kg in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group
(2) Strength and physical performance improved significantly in both groups with no interaction effect of dietary protein supplementation
CONCLUSIONS:
– Dietary protein supplementation is required to allow muscle mass gain during exercise training in frail elderly people


Comments are closed.