NUTRITION – CREATINE – MUSCLE MASS


7 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 3 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE


 


Effect of creatine during resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscular strength in older adults – 2017

Philip D Chilibeck,1 Mojtaba Kaviani,2 Darren G Candow,3 Gordon A Zello
RESEARCH
– 22 studies included in meta-analysis with 721 participants (both men and women; with a mean age of 57–70 yrs across studies) randomized to creatine or placebo during resistance training 2–3 days/wk for 7–52 wks
RESULTS
– Creatine resulted in greater increases in lean tissue mass, chest press strength and leg press strength
– Creatine increases lean tissue mass and upper and lower body muscular strength during resistance training of older adults


Effect of creatine and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults – 2016


JohannsmeyeraCandowa, , BrahmsaMichelbZellob
METHODS
– Note: Creatine 0.1 g/kg (80 kg or 176 lbs = 8g CR)
– Note: Maltodextrin is produced from starch
– 2 groups: 52-62 yrs old
(a) Creatine – CR: n = 14, 7 females, 7 males; 0.1 g/kg/day of creatine + 0.1 g/kg/day of maltodextrin
(b) Placebo – PLA: n = 17, 7 females, 10 males; 0.2 g/kg/day of maltodextrin
– 12 wks of drop-set resistance training 3 days/week
– 2 sets of leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down performed to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]
– immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM
RESULTS
1. Drop-set resistance training improved muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle endurance and tasks of functionality
2. Creatine significantly increased body mass and muscle mass compared to placebo
3. Males on creatine increased muscle strength (lat pull-down only) to a greater extent than females on creatine
4. Creatine enabled males to resistance train at a greater capacity over time compared to males on placebo and females on creatine
5. Males on creatine and females on placebo decreased 3-MH compared to females on creatine


Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults – 2015


Candow DG, et al.
PURPOSE
– It is unknown whether creatine supplementation before or after resistance training is more effective for aging adults
METHODS
– 39 adults (50-71 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 32 weeks:
(1) Creatine before CR-B: n=15
creatine 0.1 g/kg (80kg or 176lbs = 8g CR) immediately before training and placebo (0.1 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin) immediately after
(2) Creatine after CR-A: n=12
– placebo immediately before resistance training and creatine immediately after
(3) Placebo PLA: n=12
– placebo immediately before and immediately after
RESULTS
(1) There was an increase over time for lean tissue mass and muscle strength and a decrease in fat mass
(2) CR-A resulted in greater improvements in lean tissue mass compared with PLA
(3) Creatine supplementation, independent of the timing of ingestion, increased muscle strength more than placebo
CONCLUSION
– Compared with resistance training alone, creatine improves muscle strength, with greater gains in lean tissue mass resulting from post-exercise creatine supplementation


Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training in Older Adults – 2014


Devries MC, Phillips SM.
RESULTS
– Creatine during RT in healthful aging enhances muscle mass gain, strength and functional performance
– however, the limited number of studies indicates further work is needed


CREATINE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING IN VULNERABLE OLDER WOMEN – 2014


Gualano B, et al
METHOD
24wk trial; subjects assessed at baseline and after 24wks
– 60 subjects assigned to compose following groups:
(1) placebo (PL)
(2) Creatine supplementation (CR)
(3) placebo with resistance training (PL+RT)
(4) Creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT)
RESULTS
– The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1RM) tests
– Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests
(1) 1RM Leg Press: CR+RT group (+19.9%), PL+RT group (+15%), CR group (+3.7%), PL (+2.4%)
(2) CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all other groups
(3) CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than PL (-1.2%), CR (+0.3%), PL+RT groups (-0.2%)
(4) CR and PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass, but superior to those seen in PL group
(5) Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between groups
CONCLUSION
– Creatine combined with RT improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women


Long term Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women – 2012


Aguiar AF1, Cyrino ES. et al
METHODS
– 18 healthy women (64.9 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to either:
1) Creatine (CR, N = 9) (5 g day(-1)
2) Maltodextrin Placebo (PL, N = 9) (maltodextrin)
– 12-wk RT program 3 days wk
RESULTS
1) CR group had greater increase in training volume (+164.2), 1RM bench (+5.1), knee extension (+3.9) biceps curl (+8.8) performance
2) CR group gained significantly more fat-free mass (+3.2), muscle mass (+2.8) and were more efficient in submax-strength functional tests
3) No changes in body mass or % body fat were observed from pre- to post-test in either group
CONCLUSION
– Long-term creatine supplementation combined with RT improves the ability to perform submaximal-strength functional tasks
– Creatine promotes a greater increase in maximal strength, fat-free mass and muscle mass in older women


Creatine monohydrate and CLA improve strength and body composition following resistance exercise in older adults – 2007


Tarnopolsky Met al
AIM
– Will creatine monohydrate (CrM) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enhance strength gains, improve body composition (increase fat-free mass (FFM) decrease body fat) following resistance exercise training in adults >65 yrs
METHODS
–  19 Men, 20 Women >65 years completed 6 months resistance exercise training
(1) 5g/d CrM + 6g/d CLA
(2) Placebo
RESULTS
(1) Greater improvement for CrM+CLA group in most measurements of muscular endurance, strength, FFM, lower fat mass
(2) Plasma creatinine but not creatinine clearance, increased for CrM+CLA, with no changes in serum CK activity or liver function tests
CONCLUSIONS
(1) Data confirms resistance exercise training is safe and effective for increasing strength in older adults
(2) Combination of CrM and CLA can enhance some of the beneficial effects of training over a six-month period


 

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