ENDURANCE – PROTEIN & CARBS – TRAINING & PERFORMANCE


14 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 6 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE


NOTE: 80 kg (176 lbs) x 1.8 grams of protein per day = 144 grams of protein per day



PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS ARE ELEVATED IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES AFTER EXERCISE – 2016


Hiroyuki Kato, Katsuya Suzuki, Makoto Bannai, Daniel R. Moore
AIM
– Determine average protein requirement and recommended protein intake in endurance athletes during a 3 day controlled training period
DESIGN
– After 2-d of controlled diet (1.4 g protein/kg/d) and training (10 and 5km/d) 6 male endurance-trained adults (28±4 y) did a 20 km treadmill run
– Post run they consumed variable amounts of protein (0.2–2.8 g·kg·d) and sufficient energy
RESULTS
– An estimated average requirement and a recommended protein intake of 1.65 and 1.83 g protein·kg


DISTANCE RUNNERS MAY NEED MORE PROTEIN – 2016


By Alex Hutchinson
THE STUDY POSTED ABOVE by KATO, MOORE et al
– 6 distance runners with typical weekly mileage of between 50 and 130 km
– Day 1: 10 km; Day 2: 5 km; Day 3: 20 km time trial
– After the 20K, they consumed an assigned amount of protein (each subject repeated the protocol as many as 7x)
– They needed an average of 1.65 grams/protein/per kilogram body weight/per day to provide amino acids required for muscle repair and synthesis
– This lead to a “recommended” intake of around 1.8 g/kg/day
– That’s higher than the typical 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg/day recommendation for endurance-trained athletes.
ENDURANCE ATHLETES NEED FOR MORE PROTEIN
– Studies suggest about 5% of the energy you burn during exercise comes from oxidizing protein, and that can rise to 10% if muscles are low on glycogen (as they would be late in a 20K). That could account for an additional 0.2 g/kg/day or so in the current study.
– Protein is needed to repair and remodel tissue—not just the muscle you directly damage while running, but also other damaged areas of the body like the gut; In that respect, high-impact activities like running may trigger greater protein needs than lower-impact activities like cycling or swimming


POST-EXERCISE DIETARY PROTEIN TO MAXIMIZE MUSCLE REPAIR & REMODELING IN MASTERS ENDURANCE ATHLETES – 2016


Doering TM1, Reaburn PR, Phillips SM, Jenkins DG.
RECOVERY FROM TRAINING – SLOWER WITH MASTERS ATHLETES
– Recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training
– After muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes
– Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non-muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle
PROTEIN FOR RECOVERY
– The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include:
1. Elevating muscle protein synthesis for muscle repair and remodeling
2. Elevating satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling
3. Facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis
HOW MUCH PROTEIN?
– Despite evidence suggesting physical training can reduce but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein (approx 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes
– Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus

NOTE: See the protein needs under Strength Training


LOWER INTEGRATED MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN MASTERS COMPARED TO YOUNGER ATHLETES – 2016


Doering, Thomas M.; Phillips, Stuart M. et al
PURPOSE
– Compare muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates of masters and younger triathletes over 3 days of intense endurance training
– Recovery of cycling performance, following muscle-damaging running, was also compared between groups.
METHODS
– Five masters age, 53+/-2yr and six younger age, 27+/-2yr trained triathletes
– Participants then completed a 30 min downhill run; 3 x 20 km cycling time trials were completed 10, 24 and 48 h following the run
CONCLUSIONS
– Data shows lower MPS rates in well-trained masters triathletes over 3 days of training
– This likely contributes to poorer muscle protein repair and remodeling
– Acute recovery of cycle time trial performance tended to be poorer in the masters triathletes


PROTEIN-LEUCINE ACTIVATES A REGENERATIVE INFLAMMO-MYOGENIC-TRANSCRIPTOME IN MUSCLE FOLLOWING INTENSE ENDURANCE EXERCISE – 2015


Rowlands DS1Nelson AR2Raymond F3Metairon S3Mansourian R3Clarke J4Stellingwerff T5Phillips SM6.
INTRODUCTION
– Protein-leucine following strenuous endurance exercise accentuates skeletal-muscle protein synthesis and adaptive molecular responses, but underlying transcriptome is uncharacterized
DESIGN
12 trained men completed 100 min of high-intensity cycling then ingested either:
(a) 70/15/180/30g protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (15LEU)
(b) 23/5/180/30g (5LEU)
(c) 0/0/274/30g (CON) beverages during the first 90 min of a 240-min recovery period.
CONCLUSION
– PRO-leucine ingestion modulates inflammatory-myogenic regenerative processes during skeletal muscle recovery from endurance exercise


POST-EXERCISE PROTEIN TO MAXIMIZE MUSCLE REPAIR AND REMODELING IN MASTERS ENDURANCE ATHLETES – 2015


Doering TM1Reaburn PRPhillips SMJenkins DG.
(1) Following muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison to younger similarly-trained athletes
(2) Masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same post-exercise dietary protein dose (~20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes
(3) Given slower recovery rates of masters athletes following muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, they may benefit from higher doses of post-exercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content


WHY PROTEIN IS IMPORTANT FOR ENDURANCE ATHLETES – 2014


Daniel R. Moore,a Donny M. Camera,b Jose L. Areta,b John A. Hawley
ABSTRACT
– Prolonged endurance training sessions induce substantial metabolic damage/disruption to muscle and body proteins, including the depletion of fuels
CONCLUSIONS:
(1) Recent research highlights a critical role for dietary protein in supporting the recovery from endurance exercise
(2) Muscle protein synthesis in the recovery process underpins the adaptations (e.g., greater muscle power, aerobic capacity) that accrue with endurance training


PROTEIN LEUCINE FED DOSE – EFFECTS OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AFTER ENDURANCE EXERCISE – 2014


Rowlands DS1Nelson ARPhillips SMFaulkner JAClarke JBurd NAMoore DStellingwerff T
DESIGN
– Protein-leucine following strenuous endurance exercise accentuates muscle protein synthesis and improves recovery of muscle performance
12 trained men completed 100 min of high-intensity cycling, then ingested either:
(1) 70/15/180/30g protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (15LEU)
(2) 23/5/180/30g (5LEU)
(3) 0/0/274/30g (CON) beverages
– Randomised order in 4 servings during the first 90 min of a 240-min recovery period
RESULTS
(1) The 33% (90%CL ±12%) increase in MPS with 5LEU vs. CON represented near-maximal FSR stimulation
(2) Tripling protein-leucine dose (15LEU) negligibly increased FSR (13% ±12% vs. 5LEU)
CONCLUSION:
– 23 g protein with 5 g added leucine achieved near-maximal MPS after endurance exercise


EFFECT OF WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE ON PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY OF TOP-CLASS ORIENTEERING RUNNERS – 2014


Hansen M, Bangsbo J, Jensen J, Bibby BM, Madsen K.
DESIGN:
– 18 elite orienteers participated in a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions)
(1) Half the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a PRO drink before (0.3 g kg) and PRO-CHO drink after (0.3 g PRO kg and 1 g CHO kg) each exercise session
(2) The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO)
– A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention
RESULTS:
(1) PRO-CHO, and not CHO, improved performance in the 4-km run-test
(2) Reduction in sense of performance capacity during the intervention was greater in CHO than PRO-CHO
CONCLUSION:
– Whey PRO before and after exercise improves performance and reduces markers of muscle damage during a strenuous 1-wk training camp


NITROGEN BALANCE IN ENDURANCE TRAINED WOMEN – 2013


Stuart Douglas Houltham, David S. Rowlands
PURPOSE:
(1) Indirect estimates of the mean daily protein requirement for female endurance athletes are 1.2–1.4 g·kg·day
DESIGN:
– A 72-h nitrogen balance was determined for 10 female cyclists and triathletes training for 10.8 h·wk following 2 habituated protein intakes:
(1)  Normal habitual (NH) (protein 85 g·day)
(2)  Isocaloric high-protein (HP) (2-fold increase in protein)
RESULTS
– Estimated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g·kg·day


LEUCINE ENRICHED SUPPLEMENT DURING MODERATE STEADY STATE EXERCISE ENHANCES POST-EXERCISE MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS – 2011


Pasiakos SM1McClung HLMcClung JPMargolis LMAndersen NECloutier GJPikosky MARood JCFielding RAYoung AJ.
DESIGN:
– 8 adults completed 2 separate bouts of cycle ergometry for 60 min, 60% VO(2)peak
10 g EAA drinks with different leucine contents [leucine-enriched (l)-EAA,
(1) L-EAA, 3.5 g leucine
(2) EAA, 1.87 g leucine] were consumed during exercise
RESULTS:
(1) Muscle Protein Synthesis MPS was 33% greater after L-EAA (0.08 ± 0.01%/h) than after consumption of EAA (0.06 ± 0.01%/h)
(2) Whole-body protein breakdown and synthesis were lower and oxidation was greater after consumption of L-EAA than after consumption of EAA


BCAAs REDUCES MUSCLE SORENESS, MUSCLE DAMAGE AND INFLAMMATION DURING AN INTENSIVE TRAINING PROGRAM – 2009


Matsumoto K1Koba THamada KSakurai MHiguchi TMiyata H.
– Assess the effects of BCAAs on muscle soreness, muscle damage and inflammation during an intensive training program
– 12 long-distance runners (20+/- 1 yr)
– total distance: males: 86 km, females: 64 km)
– They ate the same meals during the training period
– BCAAs during an intensive training program reduces muscle soreness and fatigue sensation
– The perceived changes could be attributed to the reduction of muscle damage and inflammation


BCAAs REDUCE ACCUMULATION OF BLOOD LACTATE DURING DISTANCE RUNNING – 2007


Koba T1Hamada KSakurai MMatsumoto KHayase HImaizumi KTsujimoto HMitsuzono R.
– Investigated the effect BCAA supplementation on tissue damage during distance running
– 8 male distance runners (age: 20.4+/-1.2 years, body weight: 58.4+/-4.2 kg)
– 25-km run
– We measured the blood BCAA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, an index of tissue damage, pre- and post-run.
– The drinks contained:
(1) BCAA (0.4% BCAA in a 4% carbohydrate solution)
(2) or an iso-calorie placebo drink was provided to the subjects 5x during the run without any restriction in volume
– Maintaining the blood BCAA level throughout a long distance run contributes to a reduction in the LDH release
– Therefore, the effect of BCAA supplementation is suggested to reduce the degree of muscle damage


BCAAs AND INDICATORS OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER ENDURANCE EXERCISE – 2007


Greer BK1Woodard JLWhite JPArguello EMHaymes EM.
– Determine whether BCAAs reduces muscle damage during endurance exercise as compared with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage or placebo (PLAC) beverage
– 9 untrained men performed 3X90 min cycling bouts at 55% VO 2peak.
– Drank a total of 200 kcal of energy via the CHO or BCAA beverage before and at 60 min of exercise, or they drank the PLAC beverage
– BCAAS attenuate muscle damage during prolonged endurance exercise in untrained college-age men


 

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