ENDURANCE – RUNNING LONG DISTANCE – AGING


2 RESEARCH ARTICLES


SPRINTERS VS. LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS – 2015


Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek
INTRODUCTION
We propose that the sprint model that involves high-intensity exercise is at least as beneficial as moderate-intensity endurance exercise for successful aging
RISKS
Tendinopathy and Rupture
(1) Two studies have not revealed any significant relation between tendinopathy of achilles and patellar tendons and sport specialization in master track-and-field athletes
(2) However, injury rates during athletic competition seem to be significantly higher in sprinters, middle-distance runners, and jumpers than in long-distance runners, throwers, and combined events, even if overall injury rate is low and does not increase with age and performance level
(3) Follow-up data indicate rupture risk for the shoulder region and Achilles tendon in master track-and-field athletes after age 45 may be higher than in controls
(4) Significantly increased (∼2.5-fold compared with controls) risk of osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, or ankle in old age is a common adverse effect of competitive sport participation at a young age, but it seems health benefits still outweigh the risk
Heart Arrhythmias
(1) Master endurance athletes have greater heart dimensions (cavities, walls) than aging sprinters but the hypertrophy is benign and the normal function of the heart is preserved
(2) In a study of former elite athletes: Endurance and Sprinting seem to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and cardiac insufficiency, with endurance athletes being best protected in later stages of life


PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN MIDDLE AND OLD AGE – 2010


Leyk, D; Rüther, T; Wunderlich, M; Sievert, A; Eßfeld, D; Witzki, A; Erley, O; Küchmeister, G; Piekarski, C; Löllgen, H
METHODS
– We assessed the endurance of a physically active subgroup of the population by performing an age- and sex-stratified analysis of over 900,000 running times of marathon and half-marathon participants aged 20 to 79
– We also analyzed the responses of 13,171 marathon and half-marathon runners to a questionnaire about sports, lifestyle, and health
RESULTS
(1) No significant age-related decline in performance appears before age 55
(2) Moreover, only a moderate decline is seen thereafter; in fact, 25% of the 65- to 69-year-old runners were faster than 50% of the 20- to 54-year-old runners
(3) Our survey also revealed more than 25% of 50- to 69-year-old runners had started their marathon training only in the past 5 yrs
CONCLUSION
– Performance losses in middle age are mainly due to a sedentary lifestyle, rather than biological aging


 

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