HEALTH – OSTEOPOROSIS – JUMPING


5 ARTICLES


ASSOCIATIONS OF MUSCLE FORCE, POWER, CROSS-SECTIONAL MUSCLE AREA AND BONE GEOMETRY IN OLDER MEN – 2017


Zengin, Ward et al
AIM
(i) Investigate the relationship between muscle parameters in the upper and lower limbs with age in UK men and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships
(ii) Examine the relationships between jump force/grip strength/cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA) with bone outcomes at the radius and tibia
METHODS
– 300 White European, Black Afro-Caribbean, and South Asian men aged 40–79 years
– Lower limb jump force and power were measured from a single two-legged jump performed on a ground-reaction force platform
– Grip strength was measured using a dynamometer
– Associations between muscle and bone outcomes was determined using linear regression with adjustments for age, height, weight, and ethnicity
RESULTS
– Jump force was negatively associated with age; for every 10 year increase in age, there was a 4% reduction in jump force
– For every 10 year increase in age, grip strength decreased by 11%
– Jump force was positively associated with tibial bone outcomes
– Cross-sectional muscle area of the lower leg was not associated with tibial bone outcomes
– Both grip strength and CSMA of the arm were positively associated, to a similar extent, with radius diaphyseal bone outcomes
CONCLUSIONS
– Jump force and power are negatively associated with age in UK men
– In the lower limb, the measurement of jump force is more strongly related to bone outcomes than CSMA
– It is important to consider jump force and power when understanding the aetiology of bone loss and mobility in ageing men


Lee, E.Y., Lee, S.J., Kim, K.M
AIM
– Investigate the association of sarcopenia, with regard to muscle mass and function, with prevalent vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly women
METHODS
– 1281 women aged 64 to 87 years from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study
– Muscle mass and function were measured using bioimpedance analysis and jumping mechanography
– Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and jump power were used as an indicator of muscle mass and function, respectively
RESULTS
– We observed 282 (18.9%) vertebral fractures and 564 (44.0%) osteoporosis
– Although age, body mass index, and prevalence of osteoporosis increased as both SMI and jump power decreased, prevalence of vertebral fracture increased only when jump power decreased
– In univariate analysis, compared with the highest quartile of jump power, the lowest quartile had a significant odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.79–4.36) for vertebral fracture
– This association between jump power and vertebral fracture remained significant even after adjusting for other risk factors including age, bone mineral density, previous fracture, and cognitive function
– In contrast, there was no association between SMI and vertebral fracture
CONCLUSIONS
– Based on our results, low jump power, but not SMI, is associated with vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly Korean women
– This finding suggests that jump power may have a more important role than muscle mass itself for osteoporotic fracture


OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS BENEFIT FROM JUMPING EXERCISE – 2015


Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
INTRODUCTION
– Progressive high-impact training improved the patellar cartilage quality of postmenopausal women who may be at risk of osteoporosis (bone loss) as well as at risk of osteoarthritis
– Effects of high-impact exercise were examined on knee cartilages, osteoarthritis symptoms and physical function in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis.
DESIGN
(1) 80 eligible postmenopausal women from 50 to 65 -years of age and having knee pain on most days of the month, were enrolled into the study and randomly assigned into either a training group or a control group
(2) The mild knee osteoarthritis of all participants was confirmed prior the randomization and intervention by radiographs
(3) Training group exercised according to a supervised progressive high-impact exercise program 3x/wk for 12-months, while the control group continued their normal physical activity
(4) The effects of exercise on patellar cartilage texture and the amount of liquid was measured by T2 relaxation time at MRI imaging.
– “The breaking of the collagen network and increased free water in the articular cartilage is considered to represent the onset of the degenerative process of osteoarthritis. If those cartilage breaking changes can be hindered, stopped or even improved the quality of the cartilage via appropriate physical activity, it might slow down the disease progression,” says Doctoral Student and OMT -physiotherapist Jarmo Koli from the Department of Health Sciences.
RESULTS
(1) The quality of patellar cartilage improved with jumping and versatile rapid movements exercises
(2) The most efficient exercise modality to improve bone strength is shown to be high-impact loading (jumping type of exercise), as well as rapid change of movement directions
CONCLUSIONS
– Previously, this type of exercise has been thought to be harmful for the integrity of articular cartilage, although the issue has never been scientifically proven
– Our research group has reported earlier (Multanen et al. 2014) that jumping exercise is safe for the cartilage of tibio-femoral -joint.
– This study showed training improved the quality of the patellar cartilage and physical function such as knee extensors strength and cardiorespiratory fitness
– The most important finding was that high-impact jumping exercise improved the biochemical composition of cartilage as investigated by MRI in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis.
– In addition, the 12-month training was very well tolerated; it did not induce knee pain or stiffness, and the general training compliance was high.
– The clinical significance of this study is, postmenopausal women in mind, that despite of mild knee osteoarthritis, a person is allowed and even encouraged to progressively implement high-impact loading exercises to maintain and improve her health and functional ability.

Story Source: The above story is based on materials provided by Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PATELLAR CARTILAGE IN WOMEN WITH MILD KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS – 2015


Heinonen, Ari et al
PURPOSE:
– Investigate the effects of exercise on patellar cartilage using T2relaxation time mapping of magnetic resonance imaging in postmenopausal women with mild patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA).
METHODS:
– Eighty postmenopausal women (mean age, 58 (SD, 4.2) yr) with mild knee OA were randomized to either:
(1) a supervised progressive impact exercise program three times a week for 12 months (n = 40)
(2) or a nonintervention control group (n = 40).
– Biochemical properties of cartilage were estimated using T2 relaxation time mapping, a parameter sensitive to collagen integrity, collagen orientation, and tissue hydration.
– Leg muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity, and self-rated assessment with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were also measured.
RESULTS:
(1) Full-thickness patellar cartilage T2 values had medium-size effect; the change difference was 7% greater in the exercise group
(2) In the deep half of tissue, the significant exercise effect size was medium; the change difference was 8% greater in the exercise group
(3) Significant medium-size T2 effects were found in the total lateral segment, lateral deep, and lateral superficial zones in favor of the exercise group.
(4) Extension force was 11% greater and maximal aerobic capacity was 4% greater in the exercise group
(5) No changes in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score emerged between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Progressively implemented high-impact and intensive exercise creates enough stimuli and exerts favorable effects on patellar cartilage quality and physical function in postmenopausal women with mild knee OA


HIGH IMPACT EXERCISE INCREASED FEMORAL NECK BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN OLDER MEN – 2012


Sarah J. Allison Katherine Brooke-Wavell et al
HIGHLIGHTS
– We examined the influence of a 12 month high impact, unilateral exercise programme on bone density
– Participants were 50 healthy, community dwelling men aged 65–80years
– The brief daily exercises increased to 50 multidirectional hops, on one randomly selected leg
– Femoral neck BMD, BMC and geometry improved significantly in the exercise leg compared to the control leg
– Carefully targeted high impact exercises may reduce risk of hip fracture in healthy older men


 

 

 

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