HEALTH – OSTEOPOROSIS – EXERCISE


2 RESEARCH ARTICLES


CHANGE IN BONE MINERAL DENSITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS WITH RESISTANCE VS. AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS – 2017


Kristen M. Beavers, Barbara J. Nicklas et al
AIM
– To examine the effect of exercise during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults
METHODS
– This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5–10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults
– Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM)
– Participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65–70% heart rate reserve)
– BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 5 months
123 adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, 67% female, 81% Caucasian) participated in the RT+CR (n = 60) and AT+CR (n = 63) interventions
RESULTS
– Average weight loss was 5.7% and 8.2% in RT+CR and AT+CR groups, respectively
– After adjustment for age, gender, race, baseline BMI and BMD, and weight change, differential treatment effects were observed for total hip and femoral neck, but not lumbar spine
– Total hip and femoral neck BMD was unchanged in RT+CR participants, and modestly decreased in AT+CR participants
CONCLUSIONS
– Results suggest performing resistance, rather than aerobic, training during CR may reduce loss of hip and femoral neck BMD in overweight and obese older adults


EXERCISE AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN OLDER SUBJECTS – 2014


Paillard T.
BONE MINERAL DENSITY & BONE MINERAL FRACTURE
– Regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture
TYPE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
– Activities in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis
AEROBIC TRAINING
The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if intensity of exercise is high (ground impacts and thus bone deformation)
STRENGTH TRAINING
– Strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads
– Calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise
– Vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the planes
FREQUENCY OF STRENGTH TRAINING NEEDED
– To obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months
– The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions
WOMEN VS. MEN
– The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women


 

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