2 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 1 GRAPHIC – CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Tsuchiya Y1, Yanagimoto K2, Nakazato K3, Hayamizu K4, Ochi E5.
– This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage.
– 24 Japanese healthy men (age, 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs) were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12)
– Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise
– The EPA group consumed EPA + DHA-rich fish oil containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day.
– Subjects performed five sets of six maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises.
– Changes in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness as well as serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in blood were assessed before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise.
(1) MVC was significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group at 2-5 days after exercise.
(2) ROM was also significantly greater in the EPA group than in the PL group at 1-5 days after exercise
(3) At only 3 days after exercise, muscle soreness of the brachialis was significantly greater in the PL group than in the EPA group, with a concomitant increase in serum IL-6 levels in the PL group.
(1) Eight-week EPA + DHA supplementation reduces strength loss and limited ROM after exercise.
(2) The supplementation also reduces muscle soreness and elevates cytokine level, but the effect is limited.
Lembke P, Capodice J, Hebert K, Swenson T.
– Evaluate associations b/n tissue levels of omega-3 (N3), also known as Omega-3 Index (N3 Index), on various clinical and quality of life outcomes in healthy young adults after heavy eccentric exercise
(1) Group 1 received N3 dietary supplementation (2.7 g·d(-1)) for 30 days prior to the performance of the heavy eccentric exercise
(2) Group 2 received a placebo supplement for the same 30-day period
(3) After 30 days participants performed an eccentric exercise routine and were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs respectively on the following outcomes: C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase
(4) Blood lactate levels were analyzed immediately after the exercise
(5) Functional measurements of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), extension and torque were also analyzed
(1) Serum levels of blood lactate were lower in subjects with a high N3 Index
(2) Significant difference in blood lactate levels and improved emotional stability, reflected by POMS questionnaire, in subjects with higher N3
(3) Differences as demonstrated by reduction in pain was experienced at both 72 and 96hr time points in subjects with higher N3 Index
(4) Subjects with a higher Omega-3 (N3) Index reported less pain related to DOMS following heavy exercise at 72 and 96hrs post-exercise
(5) CRP was reduced at 24hrs and POMS scores were improved in high N3 Index subjects demonstrating better QOL
(6) Statistically significant difference in CRP levels in subjects with higher N3 Index level at 24hrs and a trend toward significance over 96hrs
(7) There were no significant differences in creatine kinase levels and no reported adverse events
(8) There were no differences in extension or strength between the 2 groups
(1) Omega-3 index (N3) is elevated after supplementation versus placebo in healthy young adults
(2) Subjects with higher N3 index demonstrated reduced DOMS after heavy exercise
(3) Subjects with higher N3 index reported better quality of life
(4) Reduced pain in higher N3 Group may be due to increased concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in muscle cell walls, triggering a higher elasticity, flexibility and lower risk of physical damage to muscle tissue during exercise