POWER – RESISTANCE TRAINING – AGING


4 RESEARCH ARTICLES


HIGH SPEED RESISTANCE TRAINING ↑ FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY & MUSCLE PERFORMANCE IN WOMEN >60 – 2014


Ramírez-Campillo R1, Izquierdo M
OBJECTIVE
– Examine effects of 12wks of high-speed resistance training (RT) versus low-speed RT on:
(1) muscle strength: Leg Press 1RM and bench-press 1RM
(2) dominant (HGd) and non-dominant maximum isometric handgrip
(3) power – counter-movement jump (CMJ)
(4) ball throwing (BT)
(5) 10-m walking sprint (S10)
(6) functional performance: 8-foot up-and-go test (UG)
(7) sit-to-stand test (STS)
(8) perceived quality of life in older women
METHODS
– 45 older women were divided into:

(1) a high-speed RT group [EG, n=15, age=66.3±3.7y]
(2) a low-speed RT group [SG, n=15, age=68.7±6.4y]
(3) control group [CG, n=15, age=66.7±4.9y].
– SG and EG did a similar 12-week RT program [3 sets of 8 reps at 40-75% of the one-repetition maximum (1<RM), CMJ and BT]
– SG did 3 sec. concentric muscle actions
– EG did <1 sec. concentric muscle actions

RESULTS
(1) Both RT groups showed small to large clinically significant improvements in the dependent variables
(2) A significant difference was found between the EG and SG for changes in Ball Throw (20% vs. 11%), 10 meter walking sprint (14% vs. 9%) and Up and Go (18% vs. 10%)
(3) No significant changes were observed for the CG
CONCLUSION
– Both RT interventions are effective in improving functional capacity, muscle performance and quality of life in older women
– A high-speed RT program induces greater improvements in muscle power and functional capacity


ECCENTRIC & STRETCH SHORTENING CYCLE (SSC) EXERCISES IN MALES 60-70 – 2014


Váczi MHortobágyi T 
AIM
– Test whether training of the quadriceps with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy males age 60-70
RESULTS
(1) Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%])
(2) The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise
(3) Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower
(4) Both programs increased quadriceps size at 2.5%
CONCLUSIONS
(1) Both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males’ quadriceps muscle
(2) Although rate of muscle tension during SSC vs. ECC was 4x greater, total mechanical work seems to regulate  hypertrophic, hormonal, and most mechanical adaptations
(3) However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly


EXERCISES INCLUDING POWER TRAINING ENHANCE OUTCOMES IN >90 – 2014


Eduardo L. Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo
METHOD
– 24 elderly (91.9 ± 4.1 yrs)
– 2x/wk, 12-wk power resistance training (8–10 reps, 40–60 % 1RM) combined with balance and gait retraining

POWER TRAINING IMPROVES OVER 90 GROUP
(1) Significantly improved:
– Time-Up-and-Go TUG with single and dual tasks
– Rise from a chair
– Balance performance
– Reduced incidence of falls

(2) Enhanced muscle power and strength
(3) Significant increases in total and high-density muscle cross-sectional area


 EFFECTS OF HIGH & LOW VELOCITY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCLE – 2011


Dennis R. Claflin,  John A. Faulkner, and James A. Ashton-Miller et al
METHOD
– progressive resistance training (PRT)
(1) 63 subjects organized into 4 groups:
– young (20–30 yr) men and women
– older (65–80 yr) men and women

(2) In each group, half the subjects underwent a traditional PRT protocol that involved shortening contractions at low velocities against high loads
(3) The half performed a modified PRT protocol that involved contractions at 3.5x higher velocity against reduced loads

RESULTS
(1) Both types of PRT increased cross-sectional area, force, and power of type 2 fibers by 8–12%, independent of sex or age of subject
(2) Contrary to our hypothesis, the velocity at which the PRT was performed did not affect the fiber-level outcomes substantially
CONCLUSIONS
– Compared with low-velocity PRT, resistance training performed at velocities up to 3.5x higher against reduced loads is equally effective for eliciting an adaptive response in type 2 fibers from human skeletal muscle


 

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