HEALTH – NSAIDS & PAIN RELIEVERS


7 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 5 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE


NSAIDs – NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS


→ Aspirin (ASA – acetylsalicylic acid) – Bayer
→ Ibuprofen – Advil, Motrin
→ Naproxen – Aleve
→ Diclofenac – Voltaren
→ Celecoxib – Celebrex
(1) Also called Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents/Analgesics (NSAIAs) or Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines (NSAIMs)
(2) Provides analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects
(3) Nonsteroidal distinguishes these drugs from steroids, which have a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action
(4) As analgesics, NSAIDs are unusual in that they are non-narcotic and thus are used as a non-addictive alternative to narcotics.
(5) NSAID identification on label of generic ibuprofen: OTC NSAID
(6) The most prominent members of this group, aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, are all available over the counter in most countries
(7) NSAIDs, particularly aspirin, may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers


PAIN RELIEVERS


→ Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
(1) Relieves mild to moderate pain from headaches, muscle aches, menstrual periods, colds, sore throats, toothaches, backaches, reactions to vaccinations (shots), and reduces fever
(2) Acetaminophen may also be used to relieve the pain of osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by the breakdown of the lining of the joints)
(3) Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers)
(4) Generally not considered an NSAID because it has only little anti-inflammatory activity
(5) It treats pain mainly by blocking COX-2 mostly in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body
(6) It works by changing the way the body senses pain and by cooling the body



– In the study as presented here, young healthy adults who underwent a high dosage ibuprofen regimen during 8 wks of resistance training experienced reduced muscular adaptations in strength and hypertrophy compared to a control
– There are two possible explanations (at least for now)
1. NSAIDs have shown to inhibit key signaling mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy
2. Although not fully substantiated, anti-inflammatory agents may inhibit the acute inflammatory response to muscle damage that subsequently signals the regenerative healing process required for actual muscle recovery
– This acute inflammatory phase following heavy, muscle damaging exercise is linked to temporary pain/soreness, and therefore NSAIDs may be used to mitigate these effects
– However, the question is whether this strategy actually promotes muscle tissue recovery or simply the perception of recovery, i.e. pain management
– I speculate the latter being the case more so than the former since this acute inflammatory response essentially signals the subsequent processes of muscle tissue healing
– In the absence of chronic inflammation, those engaged in resistance training should not resort to NSAIDs to facilitate muscle recovery as it may inhibit growth signals and processes of tissue repair. Just rest.

7 RESEARCH ARTICLES


EFFECTS OF IBUPROFEN AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BONE AND MUSCLE IN OLDER WOMEN – 2016


Duff; Chilibeck; Candow; Kontulainen, Saija A. et al
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
Resistance training (RT) with ibuprofen may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women
– Determine the effect of resistance training and ibuprofen on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women
METHODS
– 90 Participants (65 +/- 5y) training 3 days/week for 9 months
– supervised resistance training or stretching (placebo-exercise) with post-exercise ibuprofen (400 mg)
RESULTS
1. Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content at the distal radius
2. RT or ibuprofen supplementation on their own prevented bone loss.
3. RT prevented muscle density decline in the lower leg.


NO EFFECT OF NSAID ON POSTPRANDIAL AND POST-EXERCISE MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN ELDERLY MEN WITH SLIGHTLY ELEVATED SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION – 2016


Dideriksen K1, Holm L2. et al
METHODS
– 24 elderly men >60 yrs
1. 14 with slightly increased systemic inflammation were given Ibuprofen 1800mg/day for 1 wk
2. The remaining 10 served as healthy controls
RESULTS
– Elderly with slightly increased inflammation can benefit from protein and RT to stimulate muscle protein anabolism
– But, NSAID treatment added to PRO ingestion and resistance exercise did not significantly make a difference


SKELETAL MUSCLE ADAPTATION TO IMMOBILIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT RETRAINING IN ELDERLY MEN – 2016


Dideriksen K1, Boesen AP2, Kristiansen JF2, Magnusson SP2, Schjerling P2, Holm L3, Kjaer M2.
METHODS
– 19 men (60-80 yrs)
1. ibuprofen (1200mg/d, Ibu)
2. or placebo (Plc).
– One lower limb was immobilized in a cast for 2 wks and retrained for 6 wks.
– Whey protein isolate was ingested (2×20g/d) throughout the whole study period.
RESULTS
(1) Muscle mass and strength reached beyond baseline levels after 6 wks of retraining, and NSAID did not significantly affect this
(2) Plasma inflammatory markers were unaffected by the study intervention and NSAID treatment.


ACTIVATION OF SATELLITE CELLS AND THE REGENERATION OF HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE – 2016


Mackey AL1Kjaer M6. et al
DESIGN
Young men ingested
1. NSAID [1200 mg/d ibuprofen (IBU)
2. or placebo (PLA) daily for 2 wk before and 4 wk after an electrical stimulation-induced injury to the leg extensor muscles of one leg
RESULTS
– Ingestion of NSAIDs has a +ve effect during large-scale regeneration of injured skeletal muscle


IBUPROFEN INGESTION DOES NOT AFFECT MARKERS OF POST-EXERCISE MUSCLE INFLAMMATION – 2016


Luke Vella,1,* and Aaron P. Russell1
METHODS
16 males; 23 Yrs Old; followed lower body resistance training and were given:
1. Ibuprofen (1200mg/d)
2. placebo

CONCLUSION
– Ibuprofen had no effect on markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery


INFLUENCE OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND IBUPROFEN ON SKELETAL MUSCLE ADAPTATIONS TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN OLDER ADULTS – 2011


Todd A. Trappe, Chris J. Hollon et al
METHODS
– 36 individuals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups:
– Each drug was administered in 3 doses/day (∼8 AM, ∼2 PM, ∼8 PM)
– Acetaminophen: 1,500 mg, 1,500 mg, 1,000 mg, 4,000 mg total
– Ibuprofen: 400 mg/dose, 1,200 mg total 

(1) Placebo (67 ± 2 yr; n = 12)
(2) Acetaminophen: 64 ± 1 yr; n=11; 4000 mg/day
(3) Ibuprofen: 64 ± 1 yr; n=13; 1200 mg/day
RESULTS
(1) The drugs increased muscle volume and muscle strength
(2) Muscle protein content, muscle water content, and myosin heavy chain distribution were not influenced by drug consumption


THE EFFECTS OF IBUPROFEN ON MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY, STRENGTH AND SORENESS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING – 2008


Krentz JR1, Quest B, Farthing JP, Quest DW, Chilibeck PD.
METHODS
12 males and 6 females (24 yrs) trained right and left biceps on alternate days (6 sets of 4-10 reps), 5 d x week(-1), for 6 wks
– They received:
(1) 400 mg x d(-1) ibuprofen immediately after training left or right arm
(2) and a placebo after training the opposite arm the following day
RESULTS
(1) Ibuprofen consumption had no effect on muscle hypertrophy and strength
(2) Muscle soreness was elevated during the first week of training only, but was not different between the ibuprofen and placebo arm


 

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