HEALTH – PAIN – THE MIND & CONTROLLING PAIN


4 RESEARCH ARTICLES


Lemley KJ, et al.
INTRODUCTION
– Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is the concept that pain inhibits pain and has potential rehabilitation implications for exercise prescription
PURPOSE
– Determine whether changes in pressure pain perception after a thermal conditioning stimulus (i.e., CPM) was reduced with aging
– And whether CPM predicted pain relief after exercise (exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH)) in healthy young and older adults
METHODS
– 20 young (21.9 ± 3.3 yr, 10 men) and 19 older (72.0 ± 4.5 yr, 10 men) adults
RESULTS
– Young, but not older, adults reported a decrease in pressure pain at the finger while their foot was immersed in the ice water bath compared with the neutral bath
– Pressure pain ratings decreased after exercise that was perceived as painful for both young and older adults
– Regression analysis showed that after controlling for age and baseline pain, CPM predicted EIH
CONCLUSIONS
– CPM was reduced in older adults, as measured with a noxious pressure stimulus after a thermal conditioning stimulus
– Adults with greater CPM were more likely to report greater EIH



Vaegter HB, et al.
INTRODUCTION/AIM
– Pain inhibitory mechanisms are often assessed by Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and Conditioned pain modulation (CPM)
DESIGN
– 80 healthy subjects (40 females), between 18 and 65 years of age
– CPM was assessed by 2 different cold pressor tests (hand and foot)
– EIH was assessed by 2 intensities of aerobic bicycling exercises and 2 intensities of isometric muscle contraction exercises (arm and leg)
– Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded before, during, after, and 15 minutes after conditioning/exercise
RESULTS
– PPTs increased at local as well as at remote sites during both cold pressor tests and after all of the exercise conditions except low-intensity bicycling
– EIH after bicycling was higher in women than in men
– CPM and the EIH responses after isometric exercises were comparable in men and women and were not affected by age
– The EIH response was larger in the exercising body part compared with nonexercising body parts for all exercise conditions
– High-intensity exercise produced greater EIH responses than did low-intensity exercise


INFLAMMATION REDUCED WITH BEHAVIORAL TRAINING: SUBJECTS WERE TAUGHT TO SUPPRESS THEIR IMMUNE RESPONSES USING PHYSICAL CONDITIONING – 2014


Heidi Ledford and Nature magazine
– The results, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that people can learn to modulate their immune responses
– A finding that has raised hopes for patients who have chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease


PAIN AS A REWARD: CHANGING THE MEANING OF PAIN FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVES CO-ACTIVATES OPIOID AND CANNABINOID SYSTEMS – 2013


Benedetti F, Thoen W, Blanchard C, Vighetti S, Arduino C.
Our results indicate a positive approach to pain reduces the global pain experience
– The behavioral and/or pharmacological manipulation of the meaning of pain can represent an effective approach to pain management


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