2 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 12 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE
TRAIN LOW = TRAINING ON LOW CARBOHYDRATE
TRAIN ON LOW CARBOHYDRATE WITH HIGH PROTEIN AND/OR LEUCINE
Laurie-Anne Marquet 1,2,*, Hausswirth 1, Molle 1, Hawley 3,4, Louise M. Burke 3,Jeanick Brisswalter
– This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins
– We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance.
– 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention
A) 3 cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over 6 training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1)
B) the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON).
– Tests were a 2hr submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial.
1. SL improved their performance compared to CON.
2. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test.
3. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group.
– Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism
– Low carbohydrate availability is where the body is deprived of carbohydrate in some way.
– We have small carb stores: 300-900 g in muscle, 20-90 g in the liver; exact amounts depend on diet; higher carb diets = greater storage
– There are a number of ways to alter the stores in liver or muscle or both; there are similarities and differences between all these methods.
– Some methods will alter muscle glycogen stores, some only liver glycogen and some only exogenous (ingested) carbohydrates.
– Training quality will be affected especially if muscle glycogen is very low and a longer recovery time may be needed as well
– (Glycogen: A polysaccharide stored in animal liver and muscle cells that is easily converted to glucose to meet metabolic energy requirements. Most of the carbohydrate energy stored in animal cells is in the form of glycogen. – Dictionary.com)
1. LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET
– A diet which is low in carbohydrate and more energy is coming from fat or protein (usually a combination of both).
– Depending on how extreme the diet is, and how hard training is, both MUSCLE and LIVER GLYCOGEN will be lowered.
– The effects of this method are entirely depend on the severity of training and the severity of diet.
– Over a longer period adaptations will occur in fat metabolism, but de-adaptation may occur in carbohydrate metabolism
2. TRAINING TWICE PER DAY
– The 1st workout reduces MUSCLE GLYCOGEN. This is followed by little or no carbohydrate intake before the 2nd workout.
– This workout will then be performed with low muscle and low liver glycogen.
– This method has been used successfully to obtain adaptations in the muscle that favour fat metabolism.
– It is advised to use this method once or at most twice a week and additional recovery time may be required.
3. TRAINING AFTER AN OVERNIGHT FAST
– Training is performed before breakfast on an “empty stomach”.
– It is common to drink a coffee (without milk or sugar) an hour before the start of training but no calories.
– The workout will be performed with low LIVER GLYCOGEN but muscle glycogen is NOT affected.
– Depending on the intensity of training, additional recovery time may be needed.
4. LONG TRAINING WITHOUT CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE
– Workouts of several hours are conducted without the intake of carbohydrate intake.
– The start of this type of training is with normal MUSCLE and LIVER GLYCOGEN stores.
– However as these run low and they are not replenished with carbohydrate it may be more difficult to maintain the exercise intensity.
– This may cause some additional stress and that stress may enhance the effects of training.
– Because the quality of training may be compromised, it will be a trade-off and perhaps this is a method that should be used when quality of training is not essential.
5. NO CARBOHYDRATE DURING RECOVERY
– Normally it is important to consume carbohydrate for quick recovery.
– However, by withholding carbs for an hour or a couple of hours after exercise it may be possible to get greater training adaptations
– This may be at the cost of rapid recovery
6. SLEEP LOW – TRAIN LOW
– Prof John Hawley studied the effects of training before sleep and not consuming carbohydrate until after the workout the next morning
– This method may exaggerate some of the training adaptations.
– Hawley JA, Burke LM. Carbohydrate availability and training adaptation: effects on cell metabolism. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 38(4):152-60, 2010.