NUTRITION – NITRATES & SPORTS PERFORMANCE


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SLIDE PRESENTATION




CPP HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB – 2017
August – 2017


CPP HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB – 2017


– April 2017
*Revised from earlier…
– Our latest study on the effects of multi-day vs single pre-exercise dosing of exogenous nitrate has just been accepted for publication in the Journal of S&C Research
– We found that 15 days of dietary nitrate supplementation (500mg/day) improved computer simulated cycling time trial performance by ~6% and average power output by 4%, exceeding the outcomes of a single prexercise dosing
– Interestingly this boost in power output and performance was independent of improved muscle oxygenation which has been previously speculated as the prime mechanism through which dietary nitrate promotes performance enhancing effects
– Our findings show a boost in endurance power output with no change in muscle oxygenation following 15 days of nitrate intake which may be indicative of improved metabolic and oxygen efficiency
– Of course this leads us to further questions and research on nitrate’s effects on mitochondrial proteins/enzymes, density, etc. In terms of dietary sources, beet root juice and leafy greens are rich in nitrate and have shown to have health promoting benefits as well.


IOC CONSENSUS STATEMENT – 2018


NITRATE
Overview – Dietary nitrate (NO3) is a popular supplement that has been commonly investigated to assess any benefits for prolonged submaximal exercise and high-intensity, intermittent, short-duration efforts
Mechanism – Enhances nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability via the NO3-nitrite-NO pathway
– It plays an important role in the modulation of skeletal muscle function

– Nitrate augments exercise performance via
1. an enhanced function of type II muscle fibres
2. a reduced ATP cost of muscle force production
3. an increased efficiency of mitochondrial respiration
4. an increased blood flow to the muscle; and a decrease in blood flow to VO2 heterogeneities
Protocol of use – High nitrate-containing foods include leafy green and root vegetables, including spinach, rocket salad, celery and beetroot
– Acute performance benefits are generally seen within 2–3 hours following an NO3 bolus of 5–9 mmol (310–560 mg)
– Prolonged periods of NO3 intake (>3 days) also appear beneficial to performance and may be a positive strategy for highly trained athletes, where performance gains from NO3 supplementation appear harder to obtain
Performance impact – Supplementation has been associated with:
1. improvements of 4%–25% in exercise time to exhaustion
2. improvements of 1%–3% in sport-specific TT performances lasting <40 min in duration
– Supplementation is proposed to enhance type II muscle fibre function resulting in the improvement (3%–5%) of high-intensity, intermittent, team-sport exercise of 12–40 min in duration
– Evidence is equivocal for any benefit to exercise tasks lasting <12 min
Further considerations and potential side effects – The available evidence suggests there appear to be few side effects or limitations to nitrate supplementation.
– There may exist the potential for GI upset in susceptible athletes, and should therefore be thoroughly trialled in training.
– There appears to be an upper limit to benefits (ie, no greater benefit from 16.8 mmol (1041 mg) vs 8.4 mmol (521 mg))
– Performance gains appear harder to obtain in highly trained athletes

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