NUTRITION – PROTEIN – BEFORE SLEEP


6 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 11 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE


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PRE-SLEEP PROTEIN DURING POST-EXERCISE OVERNIGHT RECOVERY – 2017


Jorn TrommelenLuc J.C. van Loon et al
PURPOSE

– Impact of 30 g casein protein with and without 2 g free leucine prior to sleep on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during post-exercise overnight recovery
DESIGN
– 36 young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (19:45 h) after a full day of dietary standardization
– 30 min prior to sleep (23:30 h), subjects ingested:
1. 30 g protein with (PRO+leu, n=12)
2. 30 g protein with (PRO+leu, n=12) without (PRO, n=12) 2 g free leucine
3. a noncaloric placebo (PLA, n=12)
RESULTS
– Protein ingestion prior to sleep improved overnight whole-body protein net balance
– Muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ significantly between treatments

NOTE: Need 40 grams protein


TROMMELEN’S FACEBOOK PAGE → NUTRITION TACTICS
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PRE – SLEEP
– Pre-sleep protein provides the building blocks for overnight muscle protein synthesis (MPS) but you probably want a relative large dose
PREVIOUS STUDY
– We have previously shown 40 g casein protein stimulates overnight MPS
– This was after a day of protein intake, a protein-rich dinner at 5 pm, resistance exercise at 8 pm, immediately followed by post-workout nutrition (20 g protein)
– Subjects either got a placebo or 40 g casein protein prior to sleep
– Overnight MPS was approximately 22% higher in the group that got the supplemented extra protein prior to sleep
– However, dose-response studies during the day have shown that 20 g of protein gives a near-maximal increase in MPS
– You might get a relatively small 10-20% further increase in MPS by going up to 40 grams, but we often say that 20 g is the optimal dose
CURRENT  STUDY
– In the current study, we wanted to see if you really needed that 40 g dose or that less protein would also be effective
– This makes it a bit more practical, as not everyone likes a big protein shake prior to sleep
– We used the same experimental design as in the previous study, but this time 30 g casein protein
– 30 g pre-sleep casein did not appear sufficient to stimulate overnight MPS
– We also had a third group that had 30 g of casein with added free leucine
– Leucine is the amino acid that is most potent at stimulating MPS
– 30 g of casein with the added leucine also didn’t appear sufficient to stimulate overnight MPS
– So it appears you really need at least that 40 g pre-sleep protein to get a measurable increase in overnight MPS
SUMMARY
– So why is 30 g prior to sleep not enough when 20 g of protein gives a near-maximal response during the day? 
– We think this is because the MPS response during the day in those protein dose-response studies is measured over 4 hrs after protein ingestion
– In contrast, we measure MPS during a much longer 7.5 h overnight period
– So we think you need more protein if you want to sustain the MPS response over a longer period (and be able to detect it)

– We think the 30 g of protein is ‘working’, just not enough to detect it with this design
– We did see that the 30 g of pre-sleep protein was effectively digested and absorbed and that the amino acids from the pre-sleep protein built into muscle protein during the night
– And, the 30 g of pre-sleep protein improved overnight whole-body protein balance
– So the practical takeaway is that you need a large amount of pre-sleep protein (40 g or more) if you want to optimize overnight MPS
– The protein you had earlier in the day has little to no influence


PRE-SLEEP PROTEIN IMPROVES MUSCLE ADAPTIVE RESPONSE TO EXERCISE TRAINING – 2016


Jorn Trommelen and Luc J. C. van Loon
ABSTRACT
– Protein prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery
– At least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in MPS throughout overnight sleep
– Prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep


RESISTANCE EXERCISE AUGMENTS POSTPRANDIAL OVERNIGHT MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS RATES – 2016


protein-at-nightTrommelen J1van Loon LJ. et al
OBJECTIVE:
– Assess whether strength training performed in the evening increases overnight MPS response to pre-sleep protein
METHODS:
– 24 healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g casein protein before going to sleep:
(a) with (PRO+EX: n=12) 
(b) or without (PRO: n=12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening.
RESULTS:
1. A total of 57±1% of the ingested protein-derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation during overnight sleep. 
2. Overnight MPS rates were 37% and 31% higher in PRO+EX compared to PRO. 


PROTEIN BEFORE SLEEP INCREASES MUSCLE MASS & STRENGTH DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE TRAINING – 2015



Tim Snijders4,7Luc JC van Loon4,* et al
OBJECTIVE:
– Assess the impact of dietary protein supplementation before sleep on muscle mass and strength gains during strength training
METHODS:
– 44 young men (22 ± 1 y) were assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program.
– Group 1: 27.5 g protein, 15 g carbohydrate, 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep
– Group 2: The other group received a noncaloric placebo
– The protein used was a combination of casein and casein hydrolysate in a 1:1 ration, thus a slow as well as a fast source of amino acids
– The training took place in the evening 8-9PM or 9-10PM and was strictly controlled.
RESULTS:
(1) Muscle strength increased to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group
(2) Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in both groups over time, with a greater increase in the PRO group
(3) Both type I and type II muscle fiber size increased after exercise training, with a greater increase in type II muscle fiber size in the PRO group


PROTEIN PRIOR TO SLEEP – POTENTIAL FOR OPTIMIZING POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY – 2013


Luc J.C. van Loon, PhD; Gatorade Sports Science Institute; SSE Sports Science Exchange – #117
KEY POINTS
(1) Muscle protein synthesis rates are low during overnight sleep even when dietary protein is ingested after exercise
(2) If protein is made available during sleep, it is digested and absorbed thereby increasing muscle protein synthesis rates


PROTEIN BEFORE SLEEP IMPROVES POST-EXERCISE OVERNIGHT RECOVERY – 2012




Res PT1VAN Loon LJ. et al
METHODS
(1) 16 healthy young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (2000h)
(2) Recovery nutrition (20g protein, 60 CHO) immediately after exercise (2100h)
(3) 30 min before sleep (2330 h), subjects ingested a beverage with (PRO) or without (PLA) 40 g of casein protein
RESULTS
(1) Casein protein was effectively digested and absorbed resulting in a rapid rise in circulating amino acid levels, which were sustained throughout the remainder of the night
(2) Protein before sleep increased whole-body protein synthesis rates
(3) Protein before sleep improved net protein balance
(4) Mixed muscle protein synthesis rates were ∼22% higher in the PRO vs the PLA
CONCLUSIONS
– This is the first study to show protein immediately before sleep stimulates MPS and improves whole-body protein balance during post-exercise overnight recovery


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