NUTRITION – PROTEIN – OPTIMAL INTAKE FOR STRENGTH AND HYPERTROPHY


3 RESEARCH ARTICLES + 11 GRAPHICS – CLICK ON GRAPHIC TO ENLARGE


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HOW MUCH PROTEIN CAN THE BODY USE IN A SINGLE MEAL FOR MUSCLE-BUILDING? IMPLICATIONS FOR DAILY PROTEIN DISTRIBUTION – 2018


Brad Schoenfeld and Alan Albert Aragon
CONCLUSIONS
– To maximize anabolism consume 0.4 g/kg/meal across a minimum of 4 meals in order to reach a minimum of 1.6 g/kg/day
– Using the upper daily intake of 2.2 g/kg/day over the same 4 meals would necessitate a maximum of 0.55 g/kg/meal


RECENT PERSPECTIVES REGARDING THE ROLE OF DIETARY PROTEIN FOR THE PROMOTION OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING – 2018


Tanner StokesAmy J. HectorRobert W. MortonChris McGlory and Stuart M. Phillips
INTRODUCTION
– Muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB)
– Factors that affect MPS include both quantity and composition of the amino acid source
– Specifically, MPS is stimulated in a dose-responsive manner and the primary amino acid agonist of this process is leucine
INDIVIDUALS IN ENERGY BALANCE (not cutting calories)
– To maximize muscle protein accretion with resistance exercise, daily protein intakes should be ~1.6 g/kg/day and up to 2.2 g/kg/day; ex: 80kg or 176lbs = 130 to 176 g/day
– This intake can be achieved by ingesting 3 meals, each containing ~0.53 g/kg protein, or 4 meals containing ~0.4g/kg protein
– Spacing protein-containing meals ~3–5 h throughout the day maximizes MPS rates over the course of a 12 h (i.e., waking) period
– Practice pre-sleep protein ingestion (1–3 h prior to sleep) to offset declines in MPS that would occur during an overnight fasting period
INDIVIDUALS IN ENERGY RESTRICTION (cutting calories)
– Daily protein requirements are greater when cutting calories
– Resistance exercise should be when cutting calories to promote the retention of lean body mass
– For athletes ‘cutting’ weight over an extended period, high quality protein sources such as whey and casein, or a blend of each, should be chosen to optimize appetite control and ensure dietary compliance
– To promote lean body mass retention during weight loss, protein intakes of ~2.3–3.1 g/kg/day have been advocated; ex: 80kg or 176lbs = 185 to 250 g/day
– Non-exercising adults who have a greater body fat % should aim to achieve the lower end of this range, whereas leaner individuals with resistance-training experience who are more vulnerable to losing lean body mass during energy restriction might aim for the higher end of this range.


HOW MUCH PROTEIN TO BUILD MUSCLE? – 2017


SUMMARY of ARTICLE – October 18, 2017 – Stuart Phillips
AMINO ACID (AA) LEUCINE
– Leucine is the king AA; it turns on the anabolic signalling pathways and initiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS)
– Once leucine has ‘switched on’ MPS then this process proceeds for a relatively short period of time (1-2h) until it is switched off
– At some point you cannot stimulate MPS any further; so there is a finite amount of AA that are needed
– It may be that once leucine has activated MPS that small quantities of protein are needed to support a continued MPS response
MUSCLE PROTEIN BREAKDOWN
– We don’t know what happens to MPB with increasingly large doses of protein
– We do know that MPB is reduced by insulin which almost universally increases when we’re fed protein and/or carb and that it doesn’t take much insulin to maximally suppress MPB
SO HOW MUCH PROTEIN CAN YOUR BODY USE TO MAKE PROTEIN?
– A meta-analysis from our lab showed that the hypertrophic response at protein intakes above ~1.6 g/kg/day was not associated with greater increases in lean mass; perhaps it’s as high as 2.2 g protein/kg/day
– Thus, 1.6 ÷ 4 meals per day = 0.4 g protein/kg/meal or 0.53 g protein/kg/meal if 3 meals were consumed


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