UB-BACK-LATS-STRENGTH-MUSCLE-MASS


LATS – STRENGTH & MUSCLE MASS


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ANATOMY


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TRAINING


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Moment arms of the muscles crossing the anatomical shoulder – 2008 – Ackland
– The moment arm of a muscle force represents the mechanical advantage of a muscle and largely determines its role as a stabilizer or a prime mover; it is defined by the perpendicular distance between the muscle’s line of action and the instantaneous centre of rotation of the joint in which it spans, and represents the capacity of that muscle to exert a joint torque
superior latissimus dorsi – thoracic: shoulder extensor, ex: close grip chins, lat pulls & rows
middle latissimus dorsi – lumbar: ad-ductor, ex: wide grip chins, lat pulls & rows
inferior latissimus dorsi – pelvic: ad-ductor, ex: wide grip chins & lat pulls
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EMG of the biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles during 5 pull exercises – 2005 – Handa
– compare 5 different pull movements; 8 weight-trained men; 3 reps @70%1RM; using a Universal Machine
– upright row; bent over barbell row; seated pulley row; front lat pull-down
latissimus dorsi: seated pulley row 82%; lat pulldown 78%; bent over row 64%; upright row 14%
trapezius – upper: upright row 82%; bent over row 78%; seated row 42%; lat pulldown 29%
trapezius – middle: bent over row 90%; seated row 66%; upright row 66%; lat pulldown 48%
trapezius – lower: bent over row 87%; upright row 67%: seated row 56%; lat pulldown 55%
biceps brachii: upright row 92%; lat pulldown 64%; bent over row 44%; seated row 41%


What is the best back exercise? – 2018 – Edelburg – Exercise and Sport Science University of Wisconsin–La Crosse
– 19 males; resistance-trained; 5 reps @70% 1RM or bodywt; rest 2min
– The research team chose these muscles for a couple of specific reasons. First, they wanted to evaluate muscles from the top to the lower part of the back. They also wanted to avoid “cross talk” between muscles, which occurs when the signal from one muscle interferes with the signal of another due to the layering aspect of the back muscles.
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  • Latissimus dorsi – Extension, adduction, horizontal abduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder
    • Over 100% – pull-up > chinup
    • 85% → 82% – bent-over row > seated row > lat pulldown > inverted row
    • 45% → 40% – TRX > IYT
  • Infraspinatus – External rotation of the shoulder (this is one of the rotator cuff muscles)
    • 58% → 50% – IYT > bent over row > pull-up > chinup > inverted row
    • 40% → 35% – seated row > TRX > lat pulldown
  • Middle trapezius – Upward rotation and adduction of the scapulae
    • Over 100% – IYT > bent over row > inverted row > seated row
    • 80% → 75% – pullup > TRX
    • 60% – chinup > lat pulldown
  • Lower trapezius – Depression of the scapulae
    • 80% – IYT
    • 62% → 42% – bent over row > lat pulldown > pullup > inverted row > chinup > seated row
    • 35% – 8. TRX
  • Erector spinae – Extension and lateral flexion of the spine
    • 62% – bent over row
    • 48% → 40% – IYT > pullup > chinup > inverted row > seated row
    • 28% → 20% – TRX > lat pulldown

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  1. TRX Row: pulled scapula down and back;  elbows in at chest height, straight wrists, palms facing inward; finish without shoulders rolling forward
  2. Bent-over row: overhand grip; wrists, elbows shoulders straight line; pulled toward the sternum keeping a flat back
  3. Chin-up: underhand grip; thumbs wrapped around, pulled shoulders back and down, keeping elbows down toward sides; chin level with bar
  4. Inverted row: medium-width grip; body straight, heels on floor, arms fully extended; pulled chest toward the bar with shoulder blades retracted; pause at top
  5. Lat pull-down: overhand grip, medium width; pulled shoulder blades down and back; leaning back slightly pulling bar to top of chest and paused
  6. Seated Row: Seated pulley machine; V-bar handle; feet on platform, knees bent, straight back; chest up; pulled elbows back to front of stomach
  7. Pull-up: overhand grip, thumbs wrapped around; pulled shoulders back and down, elbows down toward sides, chin level with the bar
  8. I-Y-T raises: prone on bench, extended arms straight down toward ground, palms facing inward
    – letter “I” (arms straight overhead), the subject lifted his arms toward the ceiling
    – letter “Y” (arms at a 45-degree angle), lifting thumbs toward the ceiling, squeeze shoulder blades together in back
    – letter “T” (arms at a 90-degree angle) by turning the palms toward the floor, and again lifted the arms out to the side by squeezing the shoulder blades together

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