Zengin, Ward et al
(i) Investigate the relationship between muscle parameters in the upper and lower limbs with age in UK men and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships
(ii) Examine the relationships between jump force/grip strength/cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA) with bone outcomes at the radius and tibia
– 300 White European, Black Afro-Caribbean, and South Asian men aged 40–79 years
– Lower limb jump force and power were measured from a single two-legged jump performed on a ground-reaction force platform
– Grip strength was measured using a dynamometer
– Associations between muscle and bone outcomes was determined using linear regression with adjustments for age, height, weight, and ethnicity
– Jump force was negatively associated with age; for every 10 year increase in age, there was a 4% reduction in jump force
– For every 10 year increase in age, grip strength decreased by 11%
– Jump force was positively associated with tibial bone outcomes
– Cross-sectional muscle area of the lower leg was not associated with tibial bone outcomes
– Both grip strength and CSMA of the arm were positively associated, to a similar extent, with radius diaphyseal bone outcomes
– Jump force and power are negatively associated with age in UK men
– In the lower limb, the measurement of jump force is more strongly related to bone outcomes than CSMA
– It is important to consider jump force and power when understanding the aetiology of bone loss and mobility in ageing men
LOWER JUMP POWER RATHER THAN MUSCLE MASS ITSELF IS ASSOCIATED WITH VERTEBRAL FRACTURE IN ELDERLY WOMEN – 2017
Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
– Progressive high-impact training improved the patellar cartilage quality of postmenopausal women who may be at risk of osteoporosis (bone loss) as well as at risk of osteoarthritis
– Effects of high-impact exercise were examined on knee cartilages, osteoarthritis symptoms and physical function in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis.
(1) 80 eligible postmenopausal women from 50 to 65 -years of age and having knee pain on most days of the month, were enrolled into the study and randomly assigned into either a training group or a control group
(2) The mild knee osteoarthritis of all participants was confirmed prior the randomization and intervention by radiographs
(3) Training group exercised according to a supervised progressive high-impact exercise program 3x/wk for 12-months, while the control group continued their normal physical activity
(4) The effects of exercise on patellar cartilage texture and the amount of liquid was measured by T2 relaxation time at MRI imaging.
– “The breaking of the collagen network and increased free water in the articular cartilage is considered to represent the onset of the degenerative process of osteoarthritis. If those cartilage breaking changes can be hindered, stopped or even improved the quality of the cartilage via appropriate physical activity, it might slow down the disease progression,” says Doctoral Student and OMT -physiotherapist Jarmo Koli from the Department of Health Sciences.
(1) The quality of patellar cartilage improved with jumping and versatile rapid movements exercises
(2) The most efficient exercise modality to improve bone strength is shown to be high-impact loading (jumping type of exercise), as well as rapid change of movement directions
– Previously, this type of exercise has been thought to be harmful for the integrity of articular cartilage, although the issue has never been scientifically proven
– Our research group has reported earlier (Multanen et al. 2014) that jumping exercise is safe for the cartilage of tibio-femoral -joint.
– This study showed training improved the quality of the patellar cartilage and physical function such as knee extensors strength and cardiorespiratory fitness
– The most important finding was that high-impact jumping exercise improved the biochemical composition of cartilage as investigated by MRI in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis.
– In addition, the 12-month training was very well tolerated; it did not induce knee pain or stiffness, and the general training compliance was high.
– The clinical significance of this study is, postmenopausal women in mind, that despite of mild knee osteoarthritis, a person is allowed and even encouraged to progressively implement high-impact loading exercises to maintain and improve her health and functional ability.
Heinonen, Ari et al
– Investigate the effects of exercise on patellar cartilage using T2relaxation time mapping of magnetic resonance imaging in postmenopausal women with mild patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA).
– Eighty postmenopausal women (mean age, 58 (SD, 4.2) yr) with mild knee OA were randomized to either:
(1) a supervised progressive impact exercise program three times a week for 12 months (n = 40)
(2) or a nonintervention control group (n = 40).
– Biochemical properties of cartilage were estimated using T2 relaxation time mapping, a parameter sensitive to collagen integrity, collagen orientation, and tissue hydration.
– Leg muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity, and self-rated assessment with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were also measured.
(1) Full-thickness patellar cartilage T2 values had medium-size effect; the change difference was 7% greater in the exercise group
(2) In the deep half of tissue, the significant exercise effect size was medium; the change difference was 8% greater in the exercise group
(3) Significant medium-size T2 effects were found in the total lateral segment, lateral deep, and lateral superficial zones in favor of the exercise group.
(4) Extension force was 11% greater and maximal aerobic capacity was 4% greater in the exercise group
(5) No changes in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score emerged between the groups.
– Progressively implemented high-impact and intensive exercise creates enough stimuli and exerts favorable effects on patellar cartilage quality and physical function in postmenopausal women with mild knee OA
Sarah J. Allison Katherine Brooke-Wavell et al
– We examined the influence of a 12 month high impact, unilateral exercise programme on bone density
– Participants were 50 healthy, community dwelling men aged 65–80years
– The brief daily exercises increased to 50 multidirectional hops, on one randomly selected leg
– Femoral neck BMD, BMC and geometry improved significantly in the exercise leg compared to the control leg
– Carefully targeted high impact exercises may reduce risk of hip fracture in healthy older men