Frankie B Stentz,1 Abbas E Kitabchi et al
– Remission of pre-diabetes has had little success in the past.
– This study objective was to determine the effect on remission of pre-diabetes with a high protein (HP) versus high carbohydrate (HC) diet and effects on metabolic parameters, lean and fat body mass in prediabetic, obese subjects after 6 months of dietary intervention.
Research design and methods
– 24 pre-diabetes women and men
– They had either a HP (30% protein, 30% fat, 40% carbohydrate; n=12) or HC (15% protein, 30% fat, 55% carbohydrate; n=12)
– All meals were provided for 6 months
– At baseline and after 6 months on the respective diets oral glucose tolerance and meal tolerance tests were performed with glucose and insulin measurements and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans.
– After 6 months on the HP diet, 100% of subjects had remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance
– Only 33.3% of subjects on the HC diet had remission of their pre-diabetes.
– The HP diet group exhibited significant improvement in
(1) insulin sensitivity
(2) cardiovascular risk factors
(3) inflammatory cytokines
(4) oxidative stress
(5) increased percent lean body mass compared with the HC diet at 6 months.
– This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months.
Mignone LE1, Wu T1, Horowitz M1, Rayner CK1.
(1) Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating (reducing) postprandial (post-meal) glycaemic excursions.
(2) Whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins.
(3) Whey protein is a rich source of amino acids; these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, contributing to reduction in postprandial glycaemia
(4) Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus.
(5) Optimal dose and timing of whey protein are yet to be defined
Manders RJ1, Little JP, Forbes SC, Candow DG.
– Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms, which may help counteract the “anabolic resistance” to feeding in older adults
– Leucine exhibits strong insulinotropic characteristics, which may increase amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance glucose disposal to help maintain blood glucose homeostasis.
Bassil, Maya S.a; Gougeon, Réjeanne
– Protein anabolism is abnormal in type 2 diabetes (T2DM); combined with aging effects, it will compromise muscle function and mass
– Muscle protein anabolism in T2DM is resistant to the action of insulin but perhaps not to amino acid supply or exercise
– Whether Leucine supplementation improves muscle mass and function in persons with T2DM (especially elderly) with reduced protein intake or muscle mass needs to be determined