Physiol Behav. 2014; Witbracht M1, Keim NL2, Forester S3, Widaman A1, Laugero K4.
– breakfast skippers display a pattern of circulating cortisol and alterations in meal and stress-induced cortisol reactions.
– Normal weight to obese women aged 18-45 years old who were strictly defined as either
A) breakfast skippers (n=30)
B) breakfast eaters (n=35)
– both diastolic and systolic blood pressure was elevated in Group A
– LDL cholesterol was lower in Group A
– Group A had higher circulating cortisol from arrival to midafternoon and during the snack buffet
– the lunch-induced cortisol reaction was larger in Group A
– the diurnal cortisol amplitude was significantly blunted in Group A
– Self-reports of chronic stress did not differ between the groups.
– These data indicate that habitually skipping breakfast is associated with stress-independent over-activity in the HPA axis which, if prolonged, may increase risk (e.g., hypertension) for cardiometabolic disease in some people.
J Hum Hypertens. 2015; Engberink MF1, Baak MA14.
– Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear
– examined effect of high-protein diet on maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss in 420 overweight adults
– After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a:
(1) high-protein diet (23-28 en% protein)
(2) a lower-protein control diet (10-15 en% protein) for 26 weeks.
(1) BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3 kg m(-2), BP was 118/73 mm Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents
(2) Systolic BP during 26 wks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2 mm Hg less in the high-protein group than in the lower-protein control group
(3) In 191 (pre)hypertensive subjects, a larger difference was observed
(4) The effect was attenuated after adjustment for initial BP and after additional adjustment for weight change
(5) Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results
(6) Diastolic BP yielded similar results
– BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense of carbohydrates.
– This effect is partly mediated by body weight.
– Buendia, Moore Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; 2014
– Short-term clinical trials suggest that dietary protein lowers blood pressure (BP);
– however, long-term effects of total, animal, and plant proteins are less clear.
– Our goal was to evaluate effects of these dietary proteins on mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) and incident high BP (HBP) risk among middle-aged adults in the Framingham Offspring Study.
– Men and women (aged 30–54 years) without prevalent HBP, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes
– 3-day dietary records from exams 3 or 5 (n = 1,361) were included and followed for a mean of 11.3 years for development of HBP.
– Protein intakes adjusted for body size were derived using the residual method.
– Adjusted for age, sex, education, height, activity, smoking, fat calories, diet quality, and body mass index.
(1) Higher protein intakes were associated with lower mean SBP and DBP
(2) Both animal and plant proteins lowered BP and led to statistically significant reductions in HBP risk
(3) Participants in the highest tertile of total protein intake had 40% less risk of developing HBP
(4) Beneficial effects of protein were apparent for men and women and for normal–weight and overweight individuals
(5) Higher protein diets also characterized by higher fiber intakes led to a 59% reduction in HBP risk
– Adults consuming more dietary protein from either plant or animal sources had lower long-term risks of HBP